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Experimental investigation of mixing of non-isothermal water streams at BWR operating conditions
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Reactor Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8743-7157
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Reactor Technology. Warsaw University of Technology, Poland.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5595-1952
2017 (English)In: Nuclear Engineering and Design, ISSN 0029-5493, E-ISSN 1872-759X, Vol. 317, 158-176 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this experimental investigation, wall surface temperatures have been measured during mixing of three water streams in the annular gap between two coaxial stainless-steel tubes. The inner tube, with an outer diameter of 35 mm and a thickness of 5 mm, holds six K-type, ungrounded thermocouples with a diameter of 0.5 mm, which measured surface temperatures with a sampling rate of either 100 Hz or 1000 Hz. The tube was rotated from 0 to 360° and moved in a range of 387 mm in the axial direction to allow measurements of surface temperatures in the whole mixing region. The outer tube has an inner diameter of 80 mm and a thickness of 10 mm to withstand a water pressure of 9 MPa. A water stream at a temperature of either 333 K or 423 K and a Reynolds number between 1657 and 8410 rose vertically in the annular gap and mixed with two water streams at a temperature of 549 K and a Reynolds number between 3.56E5 and 7.11E5. These two water streams entered the annulus radially on the same axial level, 180° apart. Water pressure was kept at 7.2 MPa. Temperature recordings were performed at five axial and eight azimuthal locations, for each set of boundary conditions. Each recording lasted 120 s to provide reliable data on the variance, intermittency and frequency of the surface temperature time series at hand. Thorough calculations indicate that the uncertainty in the measured temperature is of 1.58 K. The mixing region extends up to 0.2 m downward of the hot inlets. In most cases, measurements indicate non-uniform mixing in the azimuthal direction, because of asymmetries in either geometry or mass flow rates at the hot inlets. Due to the measurement accuracy and a relatively simple geometry, an experimental database has been obtained for validation of computational methods to predict thermal mixing and fatigue. Furthermore, these data can provide new insight into turbulent mixing at BWR operating conditions and, more generally, into mixing coupled to the dynamics, also termed level-2 mixing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017. Vol. 317, 158-176 p.
Keyword [en]
Wall surface temperature, Temperature measurement, Mixing, Uncertainty analysis, BWR control rods
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-205197DOI: 10.1016/j.nucengdes.2017.03.034ISI: 000401117400015Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85017113636OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-205197DiVA: diva2:1087600
Projects
THEMFE
Funder
Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, 47385
Note

QC 20170419

Available from: 2017-04-08 Created: 2017-04-08 Last updated: 2017-06-12Bibliographically approved

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