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Integration of Battery and Hydrogen Storage with a Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System in Buildings
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8271-7512
2017 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

    The integration of Photovoltaic (PV) with buildings changes the previous electricity consumers into prosumers. The reduced PV subsidies and the grid stable operation requirements are pushing prosumers from direct exportation to self-consumption of the produced electricity. Electricity storage increases the self-consumption, while comes with higher investment. During the system planning stage, the benefits of storage should be clarified to prosumers. The storage type, the storage capacity and the system operation strategy should be determined at the same time.

    This thesis dealt with a grid-connected PV-storage system and proposed an optimization method, which simultaneously determined the storage capacity and rule-based operation strategy parameters. This method eliminated the necessity of forecasting and could be easily implemented. A typical residential building in Sweden was taken as a case study. Different operation strategies as well as two storage technologies – battery storage and hydrogen storage – were compared.

    For the battery storage system, the proposed battery hybrid operation strategy, which carries out the conventional operation strategy during warm months and the peak shaving strategy during cold months, provides the best performance in Self Sufficiency Ratio (SSR) and Net Present Value (NPV). For the hydrogen storage system, the hydrogen hybrid operation strategy outperforms other studied operation strategies under different scenarios, which have optimistic or pessimistic cost assumptions of the hydrogen storage system.

    The comparison between hydrogen storage and battery storage suggests that battery storage has much better performance in SSR and NPV under the pessimistic cost scenario. Under the optimistic cost scenario, battery storage and hydrogen storage achieve comparable performance in SSR and NPV. However, hydrogen storage is more favorable when considering reducing the prosumer’s negative impact on the grid.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. , 43 p.
Series
TRITA-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2017:25
Keyword [en]
Photovoltaic, Grid, Building, Battery, Hydrogen Storage, Operation Strategy, Optimization
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Research subject
Energy Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-205211ISBN: 978-91-7729-355-2 OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-205211DiVA: diva2:1088180
Presentation
2017-05-15, E36, KTH, Lindstedtsvägen 3, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20170412

Available from: 2017-04-12 Created: 2017-04-11 Last updated: 2017-04-12Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. The Influence of Photovoltaic Models and Battery Models inSystem Simulation and Optimization
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Influence of Photovoltaic Models and Battery Models inSystem Simulation and Optimization
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2017 (English)In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105C, 1185-1192 p.Article in journal (Refereed) In press
Abstract [en]

Selecting accurate and robust models is important for simulation and optimization of a clean energysystem. This paper compares two photovoltaic (PV) models and two battery models in an open-sourcecode, Opti-CE. The PV models are single diode model and its simplified model. The battery models areImproved Shepherd model and energy balance model. The models are compared from a perspective ofoverall system simulation and optimization in particular on both accuracy and computational time. Theresults indicate that simplified PV model causes 0.86% normalized root mean square error (nRMSE)compared with the single diode model, while decreases the simulation time from more than 800s to lessthan 0.01s. The energy balance battery model reduces simulation time from more than 5s to less than0.03s. The energy balance model tends to underestimate the battery State of Charge (SOC) compared withthe Improved Shepherd model. However, the error is not accumulative during the simulation. Comparedto the Pareto front with single diode model and Improved Shepherd model, the simplified PV modelincreases the Pareto front values and result in both higher Self Sufficiency Ratio (SSR) and Net PresentValue (NPV), while the energy balance battery model decreases the part of Pareto front, whereindividuals have low NPV.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keyword
phtovotaic, battery, optimizaiton, genetic algorithm
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-205207 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2017.03.409 (DOI)
Note

QC 20170412

Available from: 2017-04-10 Created: 2017-04-10 Last updated: 2017-04-19Bibliographically approved
2. Battery sizing and rule-based operation of grid-connected photovoltaic-battery system: A case study in Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Battery sizing and rule-based operation of grid-connected photovoltaic-battery system: A case study in Sweden
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2017 (English)In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 133, 249-263 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The optimal components design for grid-connected photovoltaic-battery systems should be determined with consideration of system operation. This study proposes a method to simultaneously optimize the battery capacity and rule-based operation strategy. The investigated photovoltaic-battery system is modeled using single diode photovoltaic model and Improved Shepherd battery model. Three rule-based operation strategies—including the conventional operation strategy, the dynamic price load shifting strategy, and the hybrid operation strategy—are designed and evaluated. The rule-based operation strategies introduce different operation parameters to run the system operation. multi-objective Genetic Algorithm is employed to optimize the decisional variables, including battery capacity and operation parameters, towards maximizing the system's Self Sufficiency Ratio and Net Present Value. The results indicate that employing battery with the conventional operation strategy is not profitable, although it increases Self Sufficiency Ratio. The dynamic price load shifting strategy has similar performance with the conventional operation strategy because the electricity price variation is not large enough. The proposed hybrid operation strategy outperforms other investigated strategies. When the battery capacity is lower than 72 kW h, Self Sufficiency Ratio and Net Present Value increase simultaneously with the battery capacity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keyword
Battery, Genetic algorithm, Operation strategy, Optimization, Photovoltaic
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-201938 (URN)10.1016/j.enconman.2016.11.060 (DOI)000392678900022 ()2-s2.0-85006791741 (ScopusID)
Note

QC 20170307

Available from: 2017-03-07 Created: 2017-03-07 Last updated: 2017-04-12Bibliographically approved
3. Comparative study of hydrogen storage and battery storage in gridconnected photovoltaic system: Storage sizing and rule-basedoperation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparative study of hydrogen storage and battery storage in gridconnected photovoltaic system: Storage sizing and rule-basedoperation
2017 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118Article in journal (Refereed) In press
Abstract [en]

The paper studies grid-connected photovoltaic (PV)-hydrogen/battery systems. The storage componentcapacities and the rule-based operation strategy parameters are simultaneously optimized by theGenetic Algorithm. Three operation strategies for the hydrogen storage, namely conventional operationstrategy, peak shaving strategy and hybrid operation strategy, are compared under two scenarios basedon the pessimistic and optimistic costs. The results indicate that the hybrid operation strategy, whichcombines the conventional operation strategy and the peak shaving strategy, is advantageous in achievinghigher Net Present Value (NPV) and Self Sufficiency Ratio (SSR). Hydrogen storage is further comparedwith battery storage. Under the pessimistic cost scenario, hydrogen storage results in poorer performancein both SSR and NPV. While under the optimistic cost scenario, hydrogen storage achieves higher NPV.Moreover, when taking into account the grid power fluctuation, hydrogen storage achieves better performancein all three optimization objectives, which are NPV, SSR and GI (Grid Indicator).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keyword
Photovoltaic; Hydrogen storage; Battery storage; Buildings; Operation strategy; Genetic algorithm
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-205206 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.03.123 (DOI)
Note

QC 20170410

Available from: 2017-04-10 Created: 2017-04-10 Last updated: 2017-04-12Bibliographically approved

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