Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Wood-based Materials for Lithium-ion Batteries
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1713-1659
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Lithium-ion batteries (LIB) have become very important recently as power sources for portable electronics and electric vehicles. Today non-renewable petroleum-based polymers are used as binders in state-of-the-art LIB. Therefore, it is essential to investigate alternative binders, which are environmentally friendly and inexpensive. Using wood-based materials, such as cellulose and lignin, could make the batteries more environmentally benign, cheaper and easier to produce.

Lignin, a byproduct from the pulping industry and the second most abundant bio-polymer in wood, has been investigated for the first time as binder material for eco-friendly LIB. Both LiFePO4 (LFP) positive and graphite negative electrodes using pretreated lignin as binder exhibited good electrochemical performance. The drawback of lignin as binder is that its poor mechanical properties limit the preparation of a thick electrode, constraining the energy density for LIB.

In order to meet the demands of flexible and bendable electronic devices, cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) as binder materials have been successfully fabricated for flexible batteries by a water-based paper making process. It showed excellent binding properties for different kinds of electrode materials, which were homogenously dispersed in its visible network. The flexible electrodes obtained good mechanical and electrochemical properties. A study of different CNF shows that the manufacturing process affects the performance of the electrodes.

Another innovative LIB concept in this thesis was to build both lightweight and bendable LIB. Chopped carbon fibers (CF), bound by CNF, were demonstrated as both current collector and as a current collector-free negative electrode, produced by an easy filtration process. The gravimetric energy density was increased compared to cells with metallic current collectors. The CF-based lightweight and flexible electrode achieved a good cycling stability, rate capability, even after 4000 times of bending.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. , p. 48
Series
TRITA-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2017:26
Keywords [en]
binder, lignin, TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils, flexible paper electrodes, lightweight, eco-friendly, Li-ion batteries
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Research subject
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-205663ISBN: 978-91-7729-358-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-205663DiVA, id: diva2:1089996
Public defence
2017-05-22, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20170421

Available from: 2017-04-21 Created: 2017-04-21 Last updated: 2017-04-24Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Lignin as a Binder Material for Eco-Friendly Li-Ion Batteries
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lignin as a Binder Material for Eco-Friendly Li-Ion Batteries
Show others...
2016 (English)In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 9, no 3, article id 127Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The industrial lignin used here is a byproduct from Kraft pulp mills, extracted from black liquor. Since lignin is inexpensive, abundant and renewable, its utilization has attracted more and more attention. In this work, lignin was used for the first time as binder material for LiFePO4 positive and graphite negative electrodes in Li-ion batteries. A procedure for pretreatment of lignin, where low-molecular fractions were removed by leaching, was necessary to obtain good battery performance. The lignin was analyzed for molecular mass distribution and thermal behavior prior to and after the pretreatment. Electrodes containing active material, conductive particles and lignin were cast on metal foils, acting as current collectors and characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and galvanostatic charge-discharge cycles. Good reversible capacities were obtained, 148 mAhg(-1) for the positive electrode and 305 mAhg(-1) for the negative electrode. Fairly good rate capabilities were found for both the positive electrode with 117 mAhg(-1) and the negative electrode with 160 mAhg(-1) at 1C. Low ohmic resistance also indicated good binder functionality. The results show that lignin is a promising candidate as binder material for electrodes in eco-friendly Li-ion batteries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2016
Keywords
lignin, binder, leaching, electrodes, Li-ion batteries
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-186569 (URN)10.3390/ma9030127 (DOI)000373805400072 ()2-s2.0-84962652184 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20160513

Available from: 2016-05-13 Created: 2016-05-13 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
2. Flexible Paper Electrodes for Li-Ion Batteries Using Low Amount of TEMPO-Oxidized Cellulose Nanofibrils as Binder
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flexible Paper Electrodes for Li-Ion Batteries Using Low Amount of TEMPO-Oxidized Cellulose Nanofibrils as Binder
Show others...
2016 (English)In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 8, no 28, p. 18097-18106Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Flexible Li-ion batteries attract increasing interest for applications in bendable and wearable electronic devices. TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils (TOCNF), a renewable material, is a promising candidate as binder for flexible Li-ion batteries with good mechanical properties. Paper batteries can be produced using a water-based paper making process, avoiding the use of toxic solvents. In this work, finely dispersed TOCNF was used and showed good binding properties at concentrations as low as 4 wt %. The TOCNF was characterized using atomic force microscopy and found to be well dispersed with fibrils of average widths of about 2.7 nm and lengths of approximately 0.1-1 mu m. Traces of moisture, trapped in the hygroscopic cellulose, is a concern when the material is used in Li-ion batteries. The low amount of binder reduces possible moisture and also increases the capacity of the electrodes, based on total weight. Effects of moisture on electrochemical battery performance were studied on electrodes dried at 110 degrees C in a vacuum for varying periods. It was found that increased drying time slightly increased the specific capacities of the LiFePO4 electrodes, whereas the capacities of the graphite electrodes decreased. The Coulombic efficiencies of the electrodes were not much affected by the varying drying times. Drying the electrodes for 1 h was enough to achieve good electrochemical performance. Addition of vinylene carbonate to the electrolyte had a positive effect on cycling for both graphite and LiFePO4. A failure mechanism observed at high TOCNF concentrations is the formation of compact films in the electrodes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 2016
Keywords
TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils, binder, flexible paper electrodes, moisture, Li-ion batteries
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-196456 (URN)10.1021/acsami.6b05016 (DOI)000380298400038 ()27362635 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84979598428 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20161129

Available from: 2016-11-29 Created: 2016-11-14 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
3. Li4Ti5O12 flexible, lightweight electrodes based on cellulose nanofibrils as binder and carbon fibers as current collectors for Li-ion batteries.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Li4Ti5O12 flexible, lightweight electrodes based on cellulose nanofibrils as binder and carbon fibers as current collectors for Li-ion batteries.
(English)Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-205655 (URN)
Note

QC 20170421

Available from: 2017-04-21 Created: 2017-04-21 Last updated: 2017-04-24Bibliographically approved
4. Flexible and lightweight lithium-ion batteries based on cellulose nanofibrils and carbon fibers.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flexible and lightweight lithium-ion batteries based on cellulose nanofibrils and carbon fibers.
(English)In: Journal of Power SourcesArticle in journal (Other academic) Submitted
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-205656 (URN)
Note

QC 20170421

Available from: 2017-04-21 Created: 2017-04-21 Last updated: 2018-05-07Bibliographically approved
5. Influence of the degree of fibrillation of TEMPO-CNF on its performance as electrode binder in flexible lithium-ion batteries.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of the degree of fibrillation of TEMPO-CNF on its performance as electrode binder in flexible lithium-ion batteries.
Show others...
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-205657 (URN)
Note

QC 20170421

Available from: 2017-04-21 Created: 2017-04-21 Last updated: 2017-04-21Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(162467 kB)105 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 162467 kBChecksum SHA-512
57691e6487afbd4bca179d9f4fdea5d1e9511a6b599f4f22345ffb26c1ffec35650cfbdff1877b496bbb9d0e2c8dc32cc0a1d6d006b3f66defa4354aa9425421
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Huiran, Lu
By organisation
Applied Electrochemistry
Chemical Engineering

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 105 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 739 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf