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Adhesive wafer bonding with ultra-thin intermediate polymer layers
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4867-0391
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6731-3886
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8853-0967
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9552-4234
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2017 (English)In: Sensors and Actuators A-Physical, ISSN 0924-4247, E-ISSN 1873-3069, Vol. 260, p. 16-23Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Wafer bonding methods with ultra-thin intermediate bonding layers are critically important in heterogeneous 3D integration technologies for many NEMS and photonic device applications. A promising wafer bonding approach for 3D integration is adhesive bonding. So far however, adhesive bonding processes relied on relatively thick intermediate adhesive layers. In this paper, we present an adhesive wafer bonding process using an ultra-thin intermediate adhesive layer with sub-200 nm thickness. We demonstrate adhesive bonding of silicon wafers with a near perfect bonding yield of >99% and achieve less than ±10% non-uniformity of the intermediate layer thickness across an entire 100 mm-diameter wafer. A bond strength of 4.8 MPa was measured for our polymer adhesive, which is considerably higher than previously reported for other ultra-thin film adhesives. Additionally, the adhesive polymer used in the proposed method features excellent chemical and mechanical stability. We also report on a potential strategy for mitigating the formation of micro-voids in the polymer adhesive at the bond interface. Furthermore, the polymer adhesive can be sacrificially removed by oxygen plasma etching for both isotropic and anisotropic release etching. The characteristics of the adhesive wafer bonding process and its compatibility with CMOS wafers, makes it very attractive for heterogeneous 3D integration processes targeted at CMOS-integrated NEMS and photonic devices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017. Vol. 260, p. 16-23
Keywords [en]
Adhesive wafer bonding; Ultra-thin bonding layer; 3D integration; MEMS; NEMS; Photonics
National Category
Nano Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-206163DOI: 10.1016/j.sna.2017.04.018ISI: 000402358200003Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85017612515OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-206163DiVA, id: diva2:1091752
Note

QC 20170502

Available from: 2017-04-27 Created: 2017-04-27 Last updated: 2018-04-05Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Heterogeneous 3D Integration and Packaging Technologies for Nano-Electromechanical Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Heterogeneous 3D Integration and Packaging Technologies for Nano-Electromechanical Systems
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Three-dimensional (3D) integration of micro- and nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS) with integrated circuits (ICs) is an emerging technology that offers great advantages over conventional state-of-the-art microelectronics. MEMS and NEMS are most commonly employed as sensor and actuator components that enable a vast array of functionalities typically not attainable by conventional ICs. 3D integration of NEMS and ICs also contributes to more compact device footprints, improves device performance, and lowers the power consumption. Therefore, 3D integration of NEMS and ICs has been proposed as a promising solution to the end of Moore’s law, i.e. the slowing advancement of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology.In this Ph.D. thesis, I propose a comprehensive fabrication methodology for heterogeneous 3D integration of NEM devices directly on top of CMOS circuits. In heterogeneous integration, the NEMS and CMOS components are fully or partially fabricated on separate substrates and subsequently merged into one. This enables process flexibility for the NEMS components while maintaining full compatibility with standard CMOS fabrication. The first part of this thesis presents an adhesive wafer bonding method using ultra-thin intermediate bonding layers which is utilized for merging the NEMS components with the CMOS substrate. In the second part, a novel NEM switch concept is introduced and the performance of CMOS-integrated NEM switch circuits for logic and computation applications is discussed. The third part examines two different packaging approaches for integrated MEMS and NEMS devices with either hermetic vacuum cavities or low-cost glass lids for optical applications. Finally, a novel fabrication approach for through silicon vias (TSVs) by magnetic assembly is presented, which is used to establish an electrical connection from the packaged devices to the outside world.

Abstract [sv]

Tredimensionell (3D) integration av mikro- och nano-elektromekaniska system (MEMS/NEMS) med integrerade kretsar (ICs) är en ny teknik som erbjuder stora fördelar jämfört med konventionell mikroelektronik. MEMS och NEMS används oftast som sensorer och aktuatorer då de möjliggör många funktioner som inte kan uppnås med vanliga ICs.3D-integration av NEMS och ICs bidrar även till mindre dimensioner, ökade prestanda och mindre energiförbrukning av elektriska komponenter. Den nuvarande tekniken för complementary metal-oxide-semicondictor (CMOS) närmar sig de fundamentala gränserna vilket drastiskt begränsar utvecklingsmöjligheten för mikroelektronik och medför slutet på Moores lag. Därför har 3D-integration identifierats som en lovande teknik för att kunna driva vidare utvecklingen för framtidens elektriska komponenter.I denna avhandling framläggs en omfattande fabrikationsmetodik för heterogen 3D-integration av NEMS ovanpå CMOS-kretsar. Heterogen integration betyder att både NEMS- och CMOS-komponenter byggs på separata substrat för att sedan förenas på ett enda substrat. Denna teknik tillåter full processfrihet för tillverkning av NEMS-komponenter och garanterar kompatibilitet med standardiserade CMOS-fabrikationsprocesser.I den första delen av avhandlingen beskrivs en metod för att sammanfoga två halvledarskivor med en extremt tunn adhesiv polymer. Denna metod demonstreras för 3D-integration av NEMS- och CMOS-komponenter. Den andra delen introducerar ett nytt koncept för NEM-switchar och dess användning i NEM-switch-baserade mikrodatorchip. Den tredje delen presenterar två olika inkapslingsmetoder för MEMS och NEMS. Den ena metoden fokuserar på hermetisk vakuuminkapsling medan den andra metoden beskriver en lågkostnadsstrategi för inkapsling av optiska komponenter. Slutligen i den fjärde delen presenteras en ny fabrikationsteknik för så kallade ”through silicon vias” (TSVs) baserad på magnetisk självmontering av nickeltråd på mikrometerskala.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. p. 55
Series
TRITA-EE, ISSN 1653-5146 ; 2017:048
Keywords
Nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS), Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS), heterogeneous 3D integration, CMOS integration, Morethan- Moore (MtM), adhesive wafer bonding, NEM switch, FPGA, contact reliability, hermetic vacuum packaging, Cu low-temperature welding, through silicon vias (TSVs), magnetic self-assembly
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-207185 (URN)978-91-7729-431-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-06-15, Q2, Osquldas väg 10, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

20170519

Available from: 2017-05-19 Created: 2017-05-18 Last updated: 2017-05-19Bibliographically approved
2. Towards Unconventional Applications of Wire Bonding
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards Unconventional Applications of Wire Bonding
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis presents novel heterogeneous integration approaches of wire materials to fabricated and package MEMS devices by exploring unconventional applications of wire bonding technology. Wire bonding, traditionally endemic in the realm of device packaging to establish electrical die-to-package interconnections, is an attractive back-end technology, offering promising features, such as high throughput, flexibility and placement accuracy. Exploiting the advantages of state-of-the-art wire bonding technology and substitute the conventional micro welding approach with an innovative attachment concept, a generic integration platform for a multitude of wire materials is provided. This facilitates a cost-efficient and selective integration, which involves the attachment and shaping of a variety of intrinsically non-bondable wire materials. Furthermore, the selective integration of wire materials provides a simple method to generate complex suspended geometries, which circumvents the need for subsequent processing. The first part of this thesis reports of the integration of non-bondable shape memory alloy wires on wafer-level, which has led to an innovative method to fabricate micro actuators. Moreover, the integration of high performance resistive heating wires on chip-level is utilized to fabricate filament based infrared emitters, targeting non-dispersive infrared gas sensing of alcohol for automotive applications. In the second part, a series of unconventional applications of wire integration using the traditional thermo-sonic wire bonding approach is presented. A novel and low-cost nitric oxide gas sensor is realized by producing vertical bond wires featuring high aspect ratio. Next, the high placement accuracy of wire bonding tools is leveraged to integrate conductive metals cores for fabricating high aspect ratio through silicon vias. Finally, an advanced packaging approach for stress-sensitive MEMS gyroscopes is evaluated, which exclusively utilizes bond wires for realizing the die attachment.

Abstract [sv]

Denna avhandling presenterar nya integrationsmetoder av trådmaterial för tillverkning och kapsling av mikro-elektromekaniska system (MEMS), genom att undersöka okonventionella tillämpningar av trådbondningsteknik.Trådbondning används traditionellt för att skapa elektrisk kontakt mellan chip och kapsel i integrerade kretsar. Det är en etablerad back-end teknologi med fördelar som hög hastighet, flexibilitet och placeringsnoggrannhet. Genom att utnyttja fördelarna hos toppmodern trådbondningsteknik och ersätta konventionell mikrosvetsning med ett innovativt koncept för att fästa tråden, tillhandahålls en generisk integrationsplattform för en mängd olika trådmaterial. Detta tillåter en kostnadseffektiv och selektiv integrering vilken består av fixering och formning av en rad icke-bondbara trådmaterial. Vidare ger den selektiva integrationen av trådmaterial en enkel metod för att generera komplexa suspenderade geometrier, som gör efterföljande bearbetning överflödig.Den första delen av avhandlingen beskriver integration av icke-bondbar minnesmetall på kiselskivor, som möjliggjort en innovativ metod för att tillverka mikroaktuatorer. Dessutom används integration av högkvalitativa resistiva trådar på chip-nivå för att tillverka filamentbaserade infraröda emittrar, ämnade för gasmätning av alkohol i fordon. I andra delen presenteras en serie av okonventionella tillämpningar av trådintegration med användning av den traditionella termo-soniska trådbondningsmetoden. En ny och billig kväveoxidgassensor tillverkades genom att producera vertikala bondtrådar på chip. Den exakta placeringsnoggrannheten hos trådbondningsverktyget används för att integrera metallkärnor som skapar en elektrisk kontakt genom kisel. Slutligen utvärderas en avancerad fixering av stresskänsliga MEMS-gyroskop i kapsel, vilket uteslutande utnyttjar bindningstrådar.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2018. p. 92
Series
TRITA-EECS-AVL ; 2018:8
Keywords
Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS), heterogeneous 3D integration, wire bonding, wire integration, transfer wafer bonding, nondispersive infrared gas sensing, low-stress packaging, shape memory alloy (SMA), infrared (IR) emitter, through silicon via (TSV), ethanol sensing, nitric oxide gas sensing, wafer-level, chip-level, Kanthal, nickel chromium (NiCr)
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-222346 (URN)978-91-7729-673-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-03-02, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
EU, European Research Council, 277879VINNOVA, 2015-00402
Note

QC 20180207

Available from: 2018-02-07 Created: 2018-02-07 Last updated: 2018-02-12Bibliographically approved

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