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SCC of 2304 duplex stainless steel-microstructure, residual stress and surface grinding effects
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry. Dalarna University, Sweden.
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0980-0560
2017 (English)In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 10, no 3, article id 221Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The influence of surface grinding and microstructure on chloride induced stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of 2304 duplex stainless steel has been investigated. Grinding operations were performed both parallel and perpendicular to the rolling direction of the material. SCC tests were conducted in boiling magnesium chloride according to ASTM G36; specimens were exposed both without external loading and with varied levels of four-point bend loading. Residual stresses were measured on selected specimens before and after exposure using the X-ray diffraction technique. In addition, in-situ surface stress measurements subjected to four-point bend loading were performed to evaluate the deviation between the actual applied loading and the calculated values according to ASTM G39. Micro-cracks, initiated by grinding induced surface tensile residual stresses, were observed for all the ground specimens but not on the as-delivered surfaces. Loading transverse to the rolling direction of the material increased the susceptibility to chloride induced SCC. Grinding induced tensile residual stresses and micro-notches in the as-ground surface topography were also detrimental.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG , 2017. Vol. 10, no 3, article id 221
Keywords [en]
Duplex stainless steel 2304, Grinding, Microstructure, Residual stress, Stress corrosion cracking, Chlorine compounds, Corrosion, Cracks, Grinding (machining), Residual stresses, Stress analysis, Surface topography, X ray diffraction, Calculated values, Duplex stainless steel, Grinding operations, Magnesium chlorides, Rolling direction, Surface stress measurement, Tensile residual stress, X-ray diffraction techniques, Stainless steel
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-207426DOI: 10.3390/ma10030221ISI: 000400863500004Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85015077550OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-207426DiVA, id: diva2:1098533
Note

QC 20170524

Available from: 2017-05-24 Created: 2017-05-24 Last updated: 2018-10-19Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Surface integrity and corrosion behavior of stainless steels after grinding operations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Surface integrity and corrosion behavior of stainless steels after grinding operations
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Stainless steels are widely used in applications where both the mechanical properties of steels and high corrosion resistance are required. There is continuous research to enable stainless steel components to be produced in a more economical way and be used in more harsh environments. A way to achieve this is to correlate the service performance with the production processes.

The central theme of this thesis is surface integrity and corrosion, especially the stress corrosion cracking behavior, after grinding processes. Controlled grinding parameters, including abrasive grit size, machine power and grinding lubricant, were used and the resulting surface properties studied for austenitic 304L and duplex 2304 stainless steels. The abrasive grit size effect was found to have a larger influence. Surface defects, a highly deformed surface layer and the generation of a high level surface tensile residual stresses along the grinding direction were observed as the main types of damage. 

The effect of grinding on stress corrosion cracking behavior of austenitic 304L, ferritic 4509 and duplex 2304 stainless steels in chloride-containing environments was also investigated.  The abrasive grit size effect on corrosion behavior for the three grades was compared. Grinding-induced surface tensile residual stress was suggested as the main factor to cause micro-cracks on the ground surface for 304L and 2304; for 4509, grinding-induced grain fragmentation was considered as the main factor for the initiation of extensive micro-pits. For duplex 2304, the microstructure and micro-notches in the as-ground surface also had significant influence. Depending on the surface conditions, the actual loading by four-point bending was found to deviate from the calculated value using the formula according to ASTM G39 by different amounts. The knowledge obtained from this work can provide guidance for choosing appropriate stainless steel grades and grinding parameters; and can also be used to help understanding the failure mechanism of ground stainless steel components during service.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2018. p. 82
Series
TRITA-CBH-FOU ; 2018:39
Keywords
stainless steel, stress corrosion cracking, surface integrity, grinding, residual stress
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-236529 (URN)978-91-7729-938-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-11-23, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20181022

Available from: 2018-10-22 Created: 2018-10-19 Last updated: 2018-10-22Bibliographically approved

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