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Effects of HCO3- on the kinetics of UO2 oxidation by H2O2
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Nuclear Chemistry.
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Nuclear Chemistry.
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Nuclear Chemistry.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0663-0751
2006 (English)In: Journal of Nuclear Materials, ISSN 0022-3115, E-ISSN 1873-4820, Vol. 358, no 2-3, 202-208 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The effect of HCO3- on the kinetics of UO2 oxidation by H2O2 in aqueous solution has been studied using powder suspensions where the concentration of H2O2 was monitored as a function of time. By varying the UO2 surface to solution volume ratio second order rate constants were obtained for HCO3- concentrations ranging from 0 to 100 mM. The second order rate constant increases linearly with HCO3- concentration from 0 to approximately 1 mM. Above 1 mM HCO3- the rate constant is 4.4 × 10-6 m min-1 independent of [HCO3-]. This indicates that the kinetics of the reaction depends on both oxidation and dissolution below 1 mM HCO3- while at higher concentrations it is solely governed by oxidation. Hence, the rate constant obtained at HCO3- concentrations above 1 mM is the true rate constant for oxidation of UO2 by H2O2. The results also imply that the reaction between HCO3- and oxidized UO2 on the UO2 surface (i.e. HCO3- facilitated dissolution) is limited by diffusion (ca 10-3 m min-1 in the present system). Furthermore, the experimental results were used to estimate the oxidation site density of the powder used (126 sites nm-1) and the rate constant for dissolution of UO22 + from the UO2 surface (7 × 10-8 mol m-2 s-1).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 358, no 2-3, 202-208 p.
Keyword [en]
F0700, U0200, W0200
National Category
Inorganic Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6360DOI: 10.1016/j.jnucmat.2006.07.008ISI: 000242254200012Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-33750371503OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-6360DiVA: diva2:11051
Note
QC 20100910Available from: 2006-11-17 Created: 2006-11-17 Last updated: 2011-01-21Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Effects of HCO3- and ionic strength on the oxidation and dissolution of UO2
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of HCO3- and ionic strength on the oxidation and dissolution of UO2
2006 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

The kinetics for radiation induced dissolution of spent nuclear fuel is a key issue in the safety assessment of a future deep repository. Spent nuclear fuel mainly consists of UO2 and therefore the release of radionuclides (fission products and actinides) is assumed to be governed by the oxidation and subsequent dissolution of the UO2 matrix. The process is influenced by the dose rate in the surrounding groundwater (a function of fuel age and burn up) and on the groundwater composition. In this licentiate thesis the effects of HCO3- (a strong complexing agent for UO22+) and ionic strength on the kinetics of UO2 oxidation and dissolution of oxidized UO2 have been studied experimentally.

The experiments were performed using aqueous UO2 particle suspensions where the oxidant concentration was monitored as a function of reaction time. These reaction systems frequently display first order kinetics. Second order rate constants were obtained by varying the solid UO2 surface area to solution volume ratio and plotting the resulting pseudo first order rate constants against the surface area to solution volume ratio. The oxidants used were H2O2 (the most important oxidant under deep repository conditions), MnO4- and IrCl62-. The kinetics was studied as a function of HCO3- concentration and ionic strength (using NaCl and Na2SO4 as electrolytes).

The rate constant for the reaction between H2O2 and UO2 was found to increase linearly with the HCO3- concentration in the range 0-1 mM. Above 1 mM the rate constant is independent of the HCO3- concentration. The HCO3- concentration independent rate constant is interpreted as being the true rate constant for oxidation of UO2 by H2O2 [(4.4 ± 0.3) x 10-6 m min-1] while the HCO3- concentration dependent rate constant is used to estimate the rate constant for HCO3- facilitated dissolution of UO22+ (oxidized UO2) [(8.8 ± 0.5) x 10-3 m min-1]. From experiments performed in suspensions free from HCO3- the rate constant for dissolution of UO22+ was also determined [(7 ± 1) x 10-8 mol m-2 s-1]. These rate constants are of significant importance for simulation of spent nuclear fuel dissolution.

The rate constant for the oxidation of UO2 by H2O2 (the HCO3- concentration independent rate constant) was found to be independent of ionic strength. However, the rate constant for dissolution of oxidized UO2 displayed ionic strength dependence, namely it increases with increasing ionic strength.

The HCO3- concentration and ionic strength dependence for the anionic oxidants is more complex since also the electron transfer process is expected to be ionic strength dependent. Furthermore, the kinetics for the anionic oxidants is more pH sensitive. For both MnO4- and IrCl62- the rate constant for the reaction with UO2 was found to be diffusion controlled at higher HCO3- concentrations (~0.2 M). Both oxidants also displayed ionic strength dependence even though the HCO3- independent reaction could not be studied exclusively.

Based on changes in reaction order from first to zeroth order kinetics (which occurs when the UO2 surface is completely oxidized) in HCO3- deficient systems the oxidation site density of the UO2 powder was determined. H2O2 and IrCl62- were used in these experiments giving similar results [(2.1 ± 0.1) x 10-4 and (2.7 ± 0.5) x 10-4 mol m-2, respectively].

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2006. 32 p.
Series
Trita-KKE, ISSN 0349-6465 ; 0603
Keyword
UO2, H2O2, spent nuclear fuel, HCO3-, ionic strength, oxidation, dissolution, surface site density.
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4172 (URN)91-7178-484-5 (ISBN)
Presentation
2006-11-24, Sal H1, KTH, Teknikringen 33, Stockholm, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101116Available from: 2006-11-17 Created: 2006-11-17 Last updated: 2010-11-16Bibliographically approved
2. Radiation Induced Oxidative Dissolution of UO2
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Radiation Induced Oxidative Dissolution of UO2
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [sv]

Sammanfattning

Denna doktorsavhandling berör oxidativ upplösning av UO2 (som modellsubstans för utbränt kärnbränsle) orsakad av radiolys av vatten samt effekten av H2 på denna denna process.

Hastighetskonstanter för oxidation av UO2-pulver med olika oxidanter såsom H2O2 har bestämts experimentellt. Logaritmen för andra ordningens hastighetskonstant, ln k, för oxidation av UO2 uppvisar ett linjärt beroende av oxidantens en-elektronreduktionspotential, E0. Detta indikerar att det hastighetsbestämmande steget för oxidation av UO2 är en en-elektronöverföring. Oxidationshastigheten för reaktionen mellan UO2 och OH• samt CO3•- är diffusionskontrollerad, k = 10-3 m/min.

Effekten av karbonat på oxidationskinetiken har studerats där H2O2 har adderats till suspensioner innehållande UO2-pulver. Andra ordningens hastighetskonstant för den rena oxidationsreaktionen mellan UO2 och H2O2 har bestämts till 4.4 x 10 -6 m/min. Den karbonatberoende upplösningshastigheten har visat sig vara diffusionskontrollerad. Hastighetskonstanten för upplösning av UO22+ i vatten fritt från karbonat är (7 +- 1) x 10-8 mol m-2 s-1.

Den relativa effektiviteten (per elektron) för en- respektive två-elektronoxidanter som orsakar upplösning av UO2 har studerats. Utbytena för upplösning med en-elektronoxidanter har ett starkt koncentrationsberoende m.a.p. oxidanten (särskilt vid låga konc.).

Reduktion av UO22+ i karbonatlösningar med H2 (p = 40 bar) vid olika temperaturer har studerats som en funktion av reaktionstiden. Hastighetskonstanten och aktiveringsenergin har bestämts, k298 = 3.6 x 10-9 M-1 s-1 och Ea = 130 +- 24 kJ/mol. Reduktionen av UO22+ till UO2 sker i frånvaro av en katalysator.

Den relativa inverkan av radiolysprodukter på oxidativ upplösning av UO2 har klargjorts. Mängden upplöst UO22+ mättes som en funktion av tiden i gasmättade gamma-bestrålade karbonatlösningar innehållande en UO2-kuts. Den simulerade upplösningshastigheten beräknades utifrån ytarea, oxidantkoncentrationer och hastighetskonstanter erhållna från det linjära sambandet (se ovan). De simulerade hastigheterna jämfördes med de experimentellt bestämda upplösningshastigeherna och korrelation är förhållandevis bra. Därmed kan inverkan av varje enskild oxidant i det undersökta systemet uppskattas. Endast de molekylära oxidanterna är av vikt i system som är relevanta för säkerhetsanalyser av ett djupförvar.

Abstract [en]

This doctoral thesis is focused on oxidative dissolution of UO2 (as a model for spent nuclear fuel) induced by radiolysis of water and the effect of H2 on this process.

Rate constants for oxidation of UO2 powder by different oxidants such as H2O2 in aqueous suspensions have been experimentally determined. The logarithm of the second order rate constant, ln k, for UO2 oxidation appears to be linearly dependent on the one-electron reduction potential, E0, of the oxidant. This indicates that the rate limiting step in oxidation of UO2 is one-electron transfer. The rate of UO2 oxidation by OH and CO3•- is estimated to be diffusion controlled, k = 10-3 m/min.

The effect of carbonate on the oxidation kinetics using H2O2 in UO2 powder suspensions has been studied. The second order rate constant for the pure oxidation reaction between UO2 and H2O2 was determined to 4.4 x 10-6 m/min. The carbonate facilitated dissolution rate is found to be limited by diffusion and the rate constant for non-carbonate mediated UO22+ dissolution was determined to (7 ± 1) x 10-8 mol m-2 s-1.

Furthermore, the relative efficiency (per electron) of one- and two-electron oxidants in causing dissolution of UO2 has been studied. The dissolution yields of one-electron oxidants are strongly dependent on the amount of oxidant (especially at low amounts).

The reduction of UO22+ in carbonate solutions by H2 (p = 40 bar) at different temperatures has been studied as a function of time. The rate constant and the activation energy were determined, k298 =3.6 x 10 -9 M-1 s-1 and Ea = 130 ± 24 kJ/mol, respectively. The reduction of UO22+ to UO2 occurs in the absence of a catalyst.

The relative impact of radiolysis products on oxidative dissolution of UO2 has been elucidated. The amount of dissolved UO22+ was measured as a function of time in γ -irradiated aqueous carbonate solutions saturated with various gases containing a UO2-pellet. The simulated dissolution rates were calculated from the surface area, oxidant concentrations and rate constants obtained from the linear relationship mentioned above. The simulated dissolution rates were compared with the experimental dissolution rates and the correlation was fairly good. Thus, the impact of each oxidant in the system studied can be estimated from the simulations. Only the molecular oxidants are of importance in systems of relevance for safety analysis of a deep repository.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2006. v, 66 p.
Series
Trita-KKE, ISSN 0349-6465 ; 0349-6465
Keyword
radiation, radiolysis, UO2, spent nuclear fuel, radicals, oxidants, reductants, rate constants, dissolution, H2O2, H2
National Category
Inorganic Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-3891 (URN)91-7178-298-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2006-04-07, Sydvästra Galleriet, KTHB, Osquars Backe 31, Stockholm, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20110121Available from: 2006-03-21 Created: 2006-03-21 Last updated: 2012-04-02Bibliographically approved

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