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On the scaling effects of measuring disc brake airborne particulate matter emissions – a comparison of a pin-on-disc tribometer and an inertia dynamometer bench under dragging conditions
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3345-5469
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

An important contributor to non-exhaust emissions in urban areas is airborne particulate matter originating from brake systems. A well-established way to test such systems in industry is to use Inertia dynamometer benches; although they are quite expensive to run. Pin-on-disc tribometers, on the other hand, are relatively cheap to run, but simplify the real system. The literature indicates promising correlations between these two test stands with regard to measured airborne number distribution. Recent studies also show a strong dependency between the airborne number concentration and the disc temperature. However, a direct comparison that also takes into account temperature effects is missing. The aim of this paper is, therefore, to investigate how the transition temperature is affected by the different test scales, under dragging conditions, and the effects on total concentration and size distribution. New and used low-steel pins/pads were tested against cast iron discs/rotors on both the aforementioned test stands, appositely designed for particulate emission studies. A constant normal load and constant rotational velocity were imposed in both test stands. Results show that a transition temperature can always be identified. However, it is influenced by the test scale and the frictional pair status. Nevertheless, emissions are assessed similarly when an equivalent frictional pair status is analysed (e.g. run-in). Further investigations for fully run-in samples on the pin-on-disc should be performed in order to finally assess the possibility of using the tribometers for the initial assessment of different friction materials.

Keyword [en]
airborne particulate matter, pin-on-disc, inertia dynamometer bench, number
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-208692OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-208692DiVA: diva2:1107903
Projects
REBRAKE - G.A. 324385
Note

QCR 20170613

Available from: 2017-06-11 Created: 2017-06-11 Last updated: 2017-06-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Particle emissions from car brakes: The influence of contact conditions on the pad-to-rotor interface
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Particle emissions from car brakes: The influence of contact conditions on the pad-to-rotor interface
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Due to their adverse health effects emissions have been regulated for over three decades. Brake wear particulate matter is the most important non-exhaust source, however current knowledge is mainly limited to observational studies. This thesis aims to investigate relations between the brake system contact conditions and the related emissions on a model scale; validate the results on a component level; and understand to what extent they are significant on a full-scale.

Paper A investigates the influence of nominal contact pressure on a model scale. Results show that higher pressure corresponds to higher emissions

Paper B investigates the influence of the nominal contact pressure, for different friction materials, on a model scale. A temperature threshold, responsible for a relevant emission increase, is identified.

Paper C investigates particle characteristics and wear mechanisms for different nominal contact pressures, on a model scale. Results show an enhanced tribo-layer at higher pressure levels.

Paper D investigates the influence of brake system conditions on emissions, on a model scale. Results show that frictional power is the most important parameter. A transition temperature independent of the contact condition is identified.

Paper E investigates similarities occurring on a component scale and a model scale in terms of emissions. Results show a promising correlation, and the possibility of using a pin-on-disc tribometer for R&D activities.

Paper F investigates analogies occurring on a component scale and a model scale, in terms of friction performance, fictional surface and chemical composition. Results show similar phenomena occurring for the two test stands.

Paper G analyses real brake system working conditions in a urban environment defining, by means of an inertia dyno bench, the related emissions. Results reveal emission factors compliant to EURO6 and EURO2 regulations, in terms of number and mass, respectively.

Abstract [sv]

På grund av deras negativa hälsoeffekter har partikel emissioner reglerats i över tre årtionden. Bromsslitagepartiklar är den viktigaste icke-avgaskällan, men nuvarande kunskaper är huvudsakligen begränsade till observationsstudier. Avhandlingen syftar till att undersöka förhållandena mellan bromssystemets kontaktförhållanden och de relaterade utsläppen på modellskala. Validera resultaten på komponentnivå och förstå i vilken utsträckning de är betydande i full skala.

Papper A undersöker påverkan av nominellt kontakttryck i en modellskala. Resultat visar att högre tryck motsvarar högre utsläpp.

Papper B undersöker påverkan av det nominella kontakttrycket, för olika friktionsmaterial, i modellskala. En temperaturtröskel,  för en emissionsökning identifieras.

Papper C undersöker partikelegenskaper och slitagemekanismer för olika nominella kontakttryck, i en modellskala. Resultat visar ett förbättrat triboskikt vid högre trycknivåer.

Papper D undersöker påverkan av bromssystemets förhållanden på utsläpp i en modellskala. Resultat visar att friktionskraften är den viktigaste parametern. En övergångstemperatur oberoende av kontaktförhållandet identifieras.

Papper E undersöker likheter som uppträder på komponentskala och  modellskala när det gäller emissioner. Resultatet visar en lovande korrelation, och möjligheten att använda en pinne-på-skiva-tribometer för FoU-aktiviteter.

Papper F undersöker analogier som förekommer på en komponentskala och en modellskala, vad gäller friktionsprestanda, friktionsyta och kemisk sammansättning. Resultat visar liknande fenomen som förekommer för de två testskalorna.

Papper G analyserar verkliga bromssystem arbetsförhållanden i en stadsmiljö som definierar, med hjälp av en tröghetsdyno bänk, de relaterade utsläppen. Resultatet visar utsläppsfaktorer som är förenliga med EURO6 och EURO2-reglerna, i fråga om antal respektive massa.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. 52 p.
Series
TRITA-MMK, ISSN 1400-1179 ; 2017:03
Keyword
Car brakes emissions, transition temperature, working conditions, environmental design, pin-on-disc, Bilbromsutsläpp, övergångstemperatur, arbetsförhållanden, miljödesign, pinne-på-skiva
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Machine Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-208701 (URN)978-91-7729-462-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-09-29, Gladan, Brinellvägen, 83, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
REBRAKE Project
Note

QC 20170808

Available from: 2017-08-08 Created: 2017-06-13 Last updated: 2017-09-08Bibliographically approved

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