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Hypoxia and Inactivity Related Physiological Changes (Constipation, Inflammation) Are Not Reflected at the Level of Gut Metabolites and Butyrate Producing Microbial Community: The PlanHab Study
KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology. (Omgivningsfysiologi, Centrum för flyg- och rymdfysiologi, Environmental Physiology, Swdish Aerspace Physiology Centre)
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2017 (English)In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 8, no 4, 250Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We explored the assembly of intestinal microbiota in healthy male participants during the run-in (5 day) and experimental phases [21-day normoxic bed rest (NBR), hypoxic bedrest (HBR)], and hypoxic ambulation (HAmb) in a strictly controlled laboratory environment, balanced fluid, and dietary intakes, controlled circadian rhythm, microbial ambiental burden, and 24/7 medical surveillance. The fraction of inspired O2 (FiO2) and partial pressure of inspired O2 (PiO2) were 0.209 and 133.1 ± 0.3 mmHg for NBR and 0.141 ± 0.004 and 90.0 ± 0.4 mmHg for both hypoxic variants (HBR and HAmb; ~4,000 m simulated altitude), respectively. A number of parameters linked to intestinal transit spanning Bristol Stool Scale, defecation rates, zonulin, α1-antitrypsin, eosinophil derived neurotoxin, bile acids, reducing sugars, short chain fatty acids, total soluble organic carbon, water content, diet composition, and food intake were measured (167 variables). The abundance, structure, and diversity of butyrate producing microbial community were assessed using the two primary bacterial butyrate synthesis pathways, butyryl-CoA: acetate CoA-transferase (but) and butyrate kinase (buk) genes. Inactivity negatively affected fecal consistency and in combination with hypoxia aggravated the state of gut inflammation (p < 0.05). In contrast, gut permeability, various metabolic markers, the structure, diversity, and abundance of butyrate producing microbial community were not significantly affected. Rearrangements in the butyrate producing microbial community structure were explained by experimental setup (13.4%), experimentally structured metabolites (12.8%), and gut metabolite-immunological markers (11.9%), with 61.9% remaining unexplained. Many of the measured parameters were found to be correlated and were hence omitted from further analyses. The observed progressive increase in two immunological intestinal markers suggested that the transition from healthy physiological state toward the developed symptoms of low magnitude obesity-related syndromes was primarily driven by the onset of inactivity (lack of exercise in NBR) that were exacerbated by systemic hypoxia (HBR) and significantly alleviated by exercise, despite hypoxia (HAmb). Butyrate producing community in colon exhibited apparent resilience toward short-term modifications in host exercise or hypoxia. Progressive constipation (decreased intestinal motility) and increased local inflammation marker suggest that changes in microbial colonization and metabolism were taking place at the location of small intestine.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Research Foundation , 2017. Vol. 8, no 4, 250
Keyword [en]
butyrate producing community, constipation, gut metabolites, human intestinal microbiome, hypoxia, inactivity, inflammation, noncommunicable diseases
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
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URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-208672DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2017.00250ISI: 000403200300001PubMedID: 28522975Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85019694798OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-208672DiVA: diva2:1107935
Note

QC 20170615

Available from: 2017-06-11 Created: 2017-06-11 Last updated: 2017-06-30Bibliographically approved

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