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Inkjet printed highly transparent and flexible graphene micro-supercapacitors
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics.
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
2017 (English)In: Nanoscale, ISSN 2040-3364, E-ISSN 2040-3372, Vol. 9, no 21, p. 6998-7005Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Modern energy storage devices for portable and wearable technologies must fulfill a number of requirements, such as small size, flexibility, thinness, reliability, transparency, manufacturing simplicity and performance, in order to be competitive in an ever expanding market. To this end, a comprehensive inkjet printing process is developed for the scalable and low-cost fabrication of transparent and flexible micro-supercapacitors. These solid-state devices, with printed thin films of graphene flakes as interdigitated electrodes, exhibit excellent performance versus transparency (ranging from a single-electrode areal capacitance of 16 mu F cm(-2) at transmittance of 90% to a capacitance of 99 mu F cm(-2) at transmittance of 71%). Also, transparent and flexible devices are fabricated, showing negligible capacitance degradation during bending. The ease of manufacturing coupled with their great capacitive properties opens up new potential applications for energy storage devices ranging from portable solar cells to wearable sensors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2017. Vol. 9, no 21, p. 6998-7005
National Category
Other Chemistry Topics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-209293DOI: 10.1039/c7nr02204bISI: 000402600500008Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85021828050OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-209293DiVA, id: diva2:1111498
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2014-6160
Note

QC 20170619

Available from: 2017-06-19 Created: 2017-06-19 Last updated: 2019-08-16Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Inkjet Printing of Graphene-based Microsupercapacitors for Miniaturized Energy Storage Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inkjet Printing of Graphene-based Microsupercapacitors for Miniaturized Energy Storage Applications
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Printing technologies are becoming increasingly popular because they enable the large-scale and low-cost production of functional devices with various designs, functions, mechanical properties and materials. Among these technologies, inkjet printing is promising thanks to its direct (mask-free) patterning, non-contact nature, low material waste, resolution down to 10 µm, and compatibility with a broad range of materials and substrates. As a result, inkjet printing has applications in several fields like wearables, opto-electronics, thin-film transistors, displays, photovoltaic devices, and in energy storage. It's in energy storage that the technique shows its full potential by allowing the production of miniaturized devices with a compact form factor, high power density and long cycle life, called microsupercapacitors (MSCs). To this end, graphene has a number of remarkable properties like high electrical conductivity, large surface area, elasticity and transparency, making it a top candidate as an electrode material for MSCs.

Some key drawbacks limit the use of inkjet printing for the production of graphene-based MSCs. This thesis aims at improving its scalability by producing fully inkjet printed devices, and extending its applications through the integration of inkjet printing with other fabrication techniques.

MSCs typically rely on the deposition by hand of gel electrolyte that is not printable or by submerging the whole structure into liquid electrolyte. Because of this, so far large-scale production of more than 10 interconnected devices has not been attempted. In this thesis, a printable gel electrolyte ink based on poly(4-styrene sulfonic acid) was developed, allowing the production of large arrays of more than 100 fully inkjet printed devices connected in series and parallel that can be reliably charged up to 12 V. Also, a second electrolyte ink based on nano-graphene oxide, a solid-state material with high ionic conductivity, was formulated to optimize the volumetric performance of these devices. The resulting MSCs were also fully inkjet printed and exhibited an overall device thickness of around 1 µm, yielding a power density of 80 mW cm-3.

Next, the use of inkjet printing of graphene was explored for the fabrication of transparent MSCs. This application is typically hindered by the so-called coffee-ring effect, which creates dark deposits on the edges of the drying patterns and depletes material from the inside area. In light of this issue, inkjet printing was combined with etching to remove the dark deposits thus leaving uniform and thin films of graphene with vertical sidewalls. The resulting devices showed a transmittance of up to 90%.

Finally, the issue of the substrate compatibility of inkjet printed graphene was addressed. Although inkjet printing is considered to have broad substrate versatility, it is unreliable on hydrophilic or porous substrates and most inks (including graphene inks) require thermal annealing that damages substrates that are not resistant to heat. Accordingly, a technique based on inkjet printing and wet transfer was developed to reliably deposit graphene-based MSCs on a number of substrates, including flat, 3D, porous, plastics and biological (plants and fruits) with adverse surfaces.

The contributions of this thesis have the potential to boost the use of inkjet printed MSCs in applications requiring scalability and resolution (e.g. on-chip integration) as well as applications requiring conformability and versatility (e.g. wearable electronics).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2019. p. 73
Series
TRITA-EECS-AVL ; 2019:61
Keywords
Inkjet printing, graphene, supercapacitor, microsupercapacitor, energy storage, printed electronics, printing technologies
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Information and Communication Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-256035 (URN)978-91-7873-255-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-09-13, Sal B, Electrum, Kistagången 16, Kungliga tekniska högskolan, Kista, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Note

QC 20190816

Available from: 2019-08-16 Created: 2019-08-16 Last updated: 2019-08-16Bibliographically approved

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