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Ultra-compact Directional Couplers and Mach-Zehnder Interferometers employing Surface Plasmon Polaritons
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
2005 (English)In: Optics Communications, ISSN 0030-4018, E-ISSN 1873-0310, Vol. 259, no 2, 690-695 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Optical directional couplers and Mach-Zehnder interferometers employing surface plasmon polaritons are proposed and their characteristics are analyzed numerically using a finite-difference time-domain method. It is shown that these devices can have transverse size smaller than the incident wavelength and can then be regarded as true subwavelength photonic elements. The ultra-compact characteristic of these devices can be utilized as a basis of next generation of integrated photonic circuits. Furthermore, calculations also show that these devices behave differently from their traditional all-dielectric counterparts. For the proposed optical directional coupler, the phase difference between the two output ports will no longer be 90 degrees even when the two ports have the same power outputs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2005. Vol. 259, no 2, 690-695 p.
Keyword [en]
surface plasmon polariton, optical directional coupler, Mach-Zehnder interferometer
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6435DOI: 10.1016/j.optcom.2005.09.034ISI: 000235643100047Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-31644435175OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-6435DiVA: diva2:11149
Note
QC 20100908Available from: 2006-11-29 Created: 2006-11-29 Last updated: 2012-03-20Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Design, Fabrication, and Characterization of Nano-Photonic Components Based on Silicon and Plasmonic Material
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design, Fabrication, and Characterization of Nano-Photonic Components Based on Silicon and Plasmonic Material
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Size reduction is a key issue in the development of contemporary integrated photonics. This thesis is mainly devoted to study some integrated photonic components in sub-wavelength or nanometric scales, both theoretically and experimentally. The possible approaches to reduce the sizes or to increase the functionalities of photonic components are discussed, including waveguides and devices based on silicon nanowires, photonic crystals, surface plasmons, and some near-field plasmonic components.

First, some numerical methods, including the finite-difference time-domain method and the full-vectorial finite-difference mode solver, are introduced. The finite-difference time-domain method can be used to investigate the interaction of light fields with virtually arbitrary structures. The full-vectorial finite-difference mode solver is mainly used for calculating the eigenmodes of a waveguide structure.

The fabrication and characterization technologies for nano-photonic components are reviewed. The fabrications are mainly based on semiconductor cleanroom facilities, which include thin film deposition, electron beam lithography, and etching. The characterization setups with the end-fire coupling and the vertical grating coupling are also described.

Silicon nanowire waveguides and related devices are studied. Arrayed waveguide gratings with 11nm and 1.6nm channel spacing are fabricated and characterized. The dimension of these arrayed waveguide gratings is around 100 μm, which is 1--2 order of magnitude smaller than conventional silica based arrayed waveguide gratings. A compact polarization beam splitter employing positive/negative refraction based on a photonic crystal of silicon pillars is designed and demonstrated. Extinction ratio of ~15dB is achieved experimentally in a wide wavelength range.

Surface plasmon waveguides and devices are analyzed theoretically. With surface plasmons the light field can be confined in a sub-wavelength dimension. Some related photonic devices, e.g., directional couplers and ring resonators, are studied. We also show that some ideas and principles of microwave devices, e.g., a branch-line coupler, can be borrowed for building corresponding surface plasmon based devices. Near-field plasmonic components, including near-field scanning optical microscope probes and left handed material slab lenses, are also analyzed. Some novel designs are introduced to enhance the corresponding systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2006. xii, 76 p.
Series
Trita-ICT/MAP, 2006:4
Keyword
nano-photonics, finite-difference time-domain method, finite-difference mode solver, amorphous silicon, silicon nanowire, arrayed waveguide grating, photonic crystal
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4193 (URN)91-7178-492-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2006-12-08, Sal E, KTH-Forum, Isafjordsg. 39, Kista, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100908Available from: 2006-11-29 Created: 2006-11-29 Last updated: 2010-09-08Bibliographically approved

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