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Highly integrated planar lightwave circuits based on plasmonic and Si nano-waveguides
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3401-1125
2006 (English)In: Passive Components and Fiber-Based Devices III, Pts 1 and 2 / [ed] Lee, SB; Sun, Y; Qui, SC; Fleming, SC; White, IH, BELLINGHAM, WA: SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING , 2006, U765-U779 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Planar lightwave circuits (PLC) based on nanophotonic waveguides are becoming more and more attractive because of their ultrasmall sizes and possibility for realizing large scale monolithic integration with a very high integration density. In this paper we discuss two attractive types of nanophotonic waveguides based on dielectrics or metals. For the dielectric type, a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) strip waveguide is considered, and ultra-compact photonic integrated devices such as polarization-insensitive arrayed waveguide grating (de)multiplexers are obtained. Based on the fact that light can be confined tightly in a single interface between a metal and dielectric, a surface plasmon (SP) waveguide can offer a tight confinement for the light field. The cross-sectional size of an SP waveguide could be pushed down to tens of nanometers, i.e. beyond the diffraction limit. An accurate anaylysis for an SP waveguide formed by a dielectric nano-trench in a metal is presented. A novel subwavelength index-guided multimode plasmonic waveguide is introduced and an ultra-compact MMI power splitter is designed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BELLINGHAM, WA: SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING , 2006. U765-U779 p.
Series
ROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY OF PHOTO-OPTICAL INSTRUMENTATION ENGINEERS (SPIE), ISSN 0277-786X ; 6351
Keyword [en]
integration density, metal, plasmonic, nano-waveguide, silicon, ultrasmall, planar lightwave circuit
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6438DOI: 10.1117/12.691140ISI: 000243501300068Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-33845682478ISBN: 0-8194-6446-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-6438DiVA: diva2:11152
Conference
Conference on Passive Components and Fiber-Based Devices III Gwangju, SOUTH KOREA, SEP 05-07, 2006
Note
QC 20100908Available from: 2006-11-29 Created: 2006-11-29 Last updated: 2013-11-19Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Design, Fabrication, and Characterization of Nano-Photonic Components Based on Silicon and Plasmonic Material
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design, Fabrication, and Characterization of Nano-Photonic Components Based on Silicon and Plasmonic Material
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Size reduction is a key issue in the development of contemporary integrated photonics. This thesis is mainly devoted to study some integrated photonic components in sub-wavelength or nanometric scales, both theoretically and experimentally. The possible approaches to reduce the sizes or to increase the functionalities of photonic components are discussed, including waveguides and devices based on silicon nanowires, photonic crystals, surface plasmons, and some near-field plasmonic components.

First, some numerical methods, including the finite-difference time-domain method and the full-vectorial finite-difference mode solver, are introduced. The finite-difference time-domain method can be used to investigate the interaction of light fields with virtually arbitrary structures. The full-vectorial finite-difference mode solver is mainly used for calculating the eigenmodes of a waveguide structure.

The fabrication and characterization technologies for nano-photonic components are reviewed. The fabrications are mainly based on semiconductor cleanroom facilities, which include thin film deposition, electron beam lithography, and etching. The characterization setups with the end-fire coupling and the vertical grating coupling are also described.

Silicon nanowire waveguides and related devices are studied. Arrayed waveguide gratings with 11nm and 1.6nm channel spacing are fabricated and characterized. The dimension of these arrayed waveguide gratings is around 100 μm, which is 1--2 order of magnitude smaller than conventional silica based arrayed waveguide gratings. A compact polarization beam splitter employing positive/negative refraction based on a photonic crystal of silicon pillars is designed and demonstrated. Extinction ratio of ~15dB is achieved experimentally in a wide wavelength range.

Surface plasmon waveguides and devices are analyzed theoretically. With surface plasmons the light field can be confined in a sub-wavelength dimension. Some related photonic devices, e.g., directional couplers and ring resonators, are studied. We also show that some ideas and principles of microwave devices, e.g., a branch-line coupler, can be borrowed for building corresponding surface plasmon based devices. Near-field plasmonic components, including near-field scanning optical microscope probes and left handed material slab lenses, are also analyzed. Some novel designs are introduced to enhance the corresponding systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2006. xii, 76 p.
Series
Trita-ICT/MAP, 2006:4
Keyword
nano-photonics, finite-difference time-domain method, finite-difference mode solver, amorphous silicon, silicon nanowire, arrayed waveguide grating, photonic crystal
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4193 (URN)91-7178-492-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2006-12-08, Sal E, KTH-Forum, Isafjordsg. 39, Kista, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100908Available from: 2006-11-29 Created: 2006-11-29 Last updated: 2010-09-08Bibliographically approved

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