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Design, Fabrication, and Characterization of Nano-Photonic Components Based on Silicon and Plasmonic Material
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Size reduction is a key issue in the development of contemporary integrated photonics. This thesis is mainly devoted to study some integrated photonic components in sub-wavelength or nanometric scales, both theoretically and experimentally. The possible approaches to reduce the sizes or to increase the functionalities of photonic components are discussed, including waveguides and devices based on silicon nanowires, photonic crystals, surface plasmons, and some near-field plasmonic components.

First, some numerical methods, including the finite-difference time-domain method and the full-vectorial finite-difference mode solver, are introduced. The finite-difference time-domain method can be used to investigate the interaction of light fields with virtually arbitrary structures. The full-vectorial finite-difference mode solver is mainly used for calculating the eigenmodes of a waveguide structure.

The fabrication and characterization technologies for nano-photonic components are reviewed. The fabrications are mainly based on semiconductor cleanroom facilities, which include thin film deposition, electron beam lithography, and etching. The characterization setups with the end-fire coupling and the vertical grating coupling are also described.

Silicon nanowire waveguides and related devices are studied. Arrayed waveguide gratings with 11nm and 1.6nm channel spacing are fabricated and characterized. The dimension of these arrayed waveguide gratings is around 100 μm, which is 1--2 order of magnitude smaller than conventional silica based arrayed waveguide gratings. A compact polarization beam splitter employing positive/negative refraction based on a photonic crystal of silicon pillars is designed and demonstrated. Extinction ratio of ~15dB is achieved experimentally in a wide wavelength range.

Surface plasmon waveguides and devices are analyzed theoretically. With surface plasmons the light field can be confined in a sub-wavelength dimension. Some related photonic devices, e.g., directional couplers and ring resonators, are studied. We also show that some ideas and principles of microwave devices, e.g., a branch-line coupler, can be borrowed for building corresponding surface plasmon based devices. Near-field plasmonic components, including near-field scanning optical microscope probes and left handed material slab lenses, are also analyzed. Some novel designs are introduced to enhance the corresponding systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2006. , xii, 76 p.
Series
Trita-ICT/MAP, 2006:4
Keyword [en]
nano-photonics, finite-difference time-domain method, finite-difference mode solver, amorphous silicon, silicon nanowire, arrayed waveguide grating, photonic crystal
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4193ISBN: 91-7178-492-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-4193DiVA: diva2:11155
Public defence
2006-12-08, Sal E, KTH-Forum, Isafjordsg. 39, Kista, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100908Available from: 2006-11-29 Created: 2006-11-29 Last updated: 2010-09-08Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Near-field optical storage system using a solid immersion lens with a left-handed material slab
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Near-field optical storage system using a solid immersion lens with a left-handed material slab
2004 (English)In: Optical express, ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 12, 4835-4840 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A new near-field optical storage system utilizing a left-handed material (LHM) is introduced by attaching an LHM slab to the lower surface of a conventional solid immersion lens (SIL). The performance of the present storage system is compared with a conventional SIL system through numerical simulation. The LHM slab in the present storage system can image very well the focused spot at the lower surface of the SIL to the surface of a disc. It allows a large air-gap for the mechanical convenience while keeping a large signal contrast and a high storage density. The tolerance of the air-gap is also improved.

National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6432 (URN)10.1364/OPEX.12.004835 (DOI)000224253900019 ()
Note
QC 20100908 QC 20110923Available from: 2006-11-29 Created: 2006-11-29 Last updated: 2013-11-19Bibliographically approved
2. Design of metal-cladded near-field fiber probes with a dispersive body-of-revolution finite-difference time-domain method
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design of metal-cladded near-field fiber probes with a dispersive body-of-revolution finite-difference time-domain method
2005 (English)In: Applied Optics, ISSN 0003-6935, E-ISSN 1539-4522, Vol. 44, no 17, 3429-3437 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

 A dispersive body-of-revolution finite-difference time-domain method is developed to simulate metal-cladded near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) probes. Two types of NSOM probe (aperture and plasmon NSOM probes) are analyzed and designed with this fast method. The influence of the metal-cladding thickness and the excitation mode on the performance of the NSOM probes is studied. We introduce a new scheme of illumination-mode NSOM by employing the plasmon NSOM probe with the TM01 mode excitation. Such a NSOM probe is designed, and we demonstrate its advantages over the conventional aperture NSOM probe by scanning across a metallic object.

Keyword
Azimuthal harmonic index, Drude modal, Metal-cladded near-field fiber probes, Near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM)
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6433 (URN)10.1364/AO.44.003429 (DOI)000229720000006 ()
Note
QC 20100908Available from: 2006-11-29 Created: 2006-11-29 Last updated: 2013-11-19Bibliographically approved
3. Novel surface plasmon waveguide for high integration
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Novel surface plasmon waveguide for high integration
2005 (English)In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 13, 6645-6650 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A novel surface plasmon waveguide structure is proposed for highly integrated planar lightwave circuits. By etching a small trench through a metallic thin film on a silica substrate, a guided mode with highly confined light fields is realized. The mode properties of the proposed structure are studied. The necessity of using a polymer upper-cladding is discussed. The coupling between two closely positioned waveguides and a 90° bending are also studied numerically. Sharp bending and high integration can be realized with the present surface plasmon waveguide. The proposed structure is easy to fabricate as compared with some other types of surface plasmon waveguides for high integration

Keyword
Cladding (coating); Fabrication; Light transmission; Metallic films, Numerical analysis, Silica, Surface plasmon resonance, Thin film circuits, Thin films
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6434 (URN)10.1364/OPEX.13.006645 (DOI)000231375000035 ()2-s2.0-24144487423 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100908Available from: 2006-11-29 Created: 2006-11-29 Last updated: 2013-11-19Bibliographically approved
4. Ultra-compact Directional Couplers and Mach-Zehnder Interferometers employing Surface Plasmon Polaritons
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ultra-compact Directional Couplers and Mach-Zehnder Interferometers employing Surface Plasmon Polaritons
2005 (English)In: Optics Communications, ISSN 0030-4018, E-ISSN 1873-0310, Vol. 259, no 2, 690-695 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Optical directional couplers and Mach-Zehnder interferometers employing surface plasmon polaritons are proposed and their characteristics are analyzed numerically using a finite-difference time-domain method. It is shown that these devices can have transverse size smaller than the incident wavelength and can then be regarded as true subwavelength photonic elements. The ultra-compact characteristic of these devices can be utilized as a basis of next generation of integrated photonic circuits. Furthermore, calculations also show that these devices behave differently from their traditional all-dielectric counterparts. For the proposed optical directional coupler, the phase difference between the two output ports will no longer be 90 degrees even when the two ports have the same power outputs.

Keyword
surface plasmon polariton, optical directional coupler, Mach-Zehnder interferometer
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6435 (URN)10.1016/j.optcom.2005.09.034 (DOI)000235643100047 ()2-s2.0-31644435175 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100908Available from: 2006-11-29 Created: 2006-11-29 Last updated: 2012-03-20Bibliographically approved
5. Design and Fabrication of an Ultrasmall Overlapped AWG Demultiplexers Based on α-Si Nanowire Waveguides
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design and Fabrication of an Ultrasmall Overlapped AWG Demultiplexers Based on α-Si Nanowire Waveguides
2006 (English)In: Electronics Letters, ISSN 0013-5194, E-ISSN 1350-911X, Vol. 42, no 7, 400-402 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A novel layout for an ultra-compact arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) demultiplexer is presented. The present layout has two overlapped free propagation regions, and is more compact than a conventional layout. Using αSi-on-SiO2 nanowire waveguides, an ultra-small 4×4 AWG (about 40×50 μm2) with channel spacing of 11 nm is fabricated and characterised.

Keyword
arrayed waveguide gratings, demultiplexing equipment, integrated optics, nanowires, silicon, silicon compounds
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6436 (URN)10.1049/el:20060157 (DOI)000237556100016 ()2-s2.0-33745181053 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100908Available from: 2006-11-29 Created: 2006-11-29 Last updated: 2013-11-19Bibliographically approved
6. Compact Arrayed Waveguide Grating Demultiplexers Based on Amorphous Silicon Nanowires
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Compact Arrayed Waveguide Grating Demultiplexers Based on Amorphous Silicon Nanowires
Show others...
2006 (English)In: Integrated Photonics Research and Applications/Nanophotonics 2006, NWB5,April 24–28, 2006, Uncasville, Connecticut, USA., 2006Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A novel and flexible technology for ultra compact AWGs based on amorphous silicon nanowires is presented. A 4×4 AWG with a total dimension of 50×50µm was fabricated. 11nm channel spacing and -10dB crosstalk was obtained.

National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6437 (URN)2-s2.0-84899051186 (Scopus ID)
Conference
Nanophotonics, NANO 2006; Uncasville, CT; United States
Note

QC 20100908

Available from: 2006-11-29 Created: 2006-11-29 Last updated: 2015-04-15Bibliographically approved
7. Highly integrated planar lightwave circuits based on plasmonic and Si nano-waveguides
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Highly integrated planar lightwave circuits based on plasmonic and Si nano-waveguides
2006 (English)In: Passive Components and Fiber-Based Devices III, Pts 1 and 2 / [ed] Lee, SB; Sun, Y; Qui, SC; Fleming, SC; White, IH, BELLINGHAM, WA: SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING , 2006, U765-U779 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Planar lightwave circuits (PLC) based on nanophotonic waveguides are becoming more and more attractive because of their ultrasmall sizes and possibility for realizing large scale monolithic integration with a very high integration density. In this paper we discuss two attractive types of nanophotonic waveguides based on dielectrics or metals. For the dielectric type, a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) strip waveguide is considered, and ultra-compact photonic integrated devices such as polarization-insensitive arrayed waveguide grating (de)multiplexers are obtained. Based on the fact that light can be confined tightly in a single interface between a metal and dielectric, a surface plasmon (SP) waveguide can offer a tight confinement for the light field. The cross-sectional size of an SP waveguide could be pushed down to tens of nanometers, i.e. beyond the diffraction limit. An accurate anaylysis for an SP waveguide formed by a dielectric nano-trench in a metal is presented. A novel subwavelength index-guided multimode plasmonic waveguide is introduced and an ultra-compact MMI power splitter is designed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BELLINGHAM, WA: SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING, 2006
Series
ROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY OF PHOTO-OPTICAL INSTRUMENTATION ENGINEERS (SPIE), ISSN 0277-786X ; 6351
Keyword
integration density, metal, plasmonic, nano-waveguide, silicon, ultrasmall, planar lightwave circuit
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6438 (URN)10.1117/12.691140 (DOI)000243501300068 ()2-s2.0-33845682478 (Scopus ID)0-8194-6446-5 (ISBN)
Conference
Conference on Passive Components and Fiber-Based Devices III Gwangju, SOUTH KOREA, SEP 05-07, 2006
Note
QC 20100908Available from: 2006-11-29 Created: 2006-11-29 Last updated: 2013-11-19Bibliographically approved
8. Polarization beam splitter based on a two-dimensional photonic crystal of pillar type
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polarization beam splitter based on a two-dimensional photonic crystal of pillar type
2006 (English)In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Applied physics letters, Vol. 89, no 17, 171115- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Negatively and positively refractive behaviors are achieved in a two-dimensional photonic crystal of pillar type for TE and TM polarizations, respectively, at the same frequency. The photonic crystal is formed by a triangular lattice of silicon pillars of finite height on a silicon substrate. A polarization beam splitter based on such a photonic-crystal slab is demonstrated. Measurements at near infrared wavelengths indicate that two beams of different polarizations can be split with an extinction ratio of over 10 dB in a wide wavelength range.

National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6439 (URN)10.1063/1.2360201 (DOI)000241585800015 ()
Note
QC 20100908Available from: 2006-11-29 Created: 2006-11-29 Last updated: 2013-11-19Bibliographically approved
9. Compact polarization beam splitter employing positive/negative refraction based on photonic crystals of pillar type
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Compact polarization beam splitter employing positive/negative refraction based on photonic crystals of pillar type
2006 (English)In: Optoeletronic Materials and Devices, Pts 1 and 2 / [ed] Lee, YH; Koyama, F; Luo, Y, BELLINGHAM, WA: SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING , 2006, U74-U81 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A polarization beam splitter based on a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab is presented. In the designed photonic crystal, the TE polarization is negatively refracted, while the TM polarization is positively refracted. The photonic crystal is composed of silicon pillars in a triangular lattice. The whole device is very compact (20x20 mu m(2)), and is compatible with the planar integration. The measurement results show that the extinction ratio is similar to 15dB from 1530 to 1610nm.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BELLINGHAM, WA: SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING, 2006
Series
PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY OF PHOTO-OPTICAL INSTRUMENTATION ENGINEERS (SPIE), ISSN 0277-786X ; 6352
Keyword
polarization beam splitter, photonic crystal; negative refraction, silicon pillar, high-aspect-ratio etching, silicon-on-insulator, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, amorphous silicon
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6440 (URN)10.1117/12.688197 (DOI)000243327900008 ()2-s2.0-33845617575 (Scopus ID)0-8194-6447-3 (ISBN)
Conference
Conference on Optoelectronic Materials and Devices. Gwangju, SOUTH KOREA. SEP 05-07, 2006
Note

QC 20100908

Available from: 2006-11-29 Created: 2006-11-29 Last updated: 2017-03-24Bibliographically approved

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