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Core/shell structure nano-iron/iron carbide electrodes for rechargeable alkaline iron batteries
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Technology.
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Technology.
Höganäs AB, SE-26383 Höganäs, Sweden.
Höganäs AB, SE-26383 Höganäs, Sweden.
2017 (English)In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 164, no 7, p. A1665-A1672Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this work, we have studied a 2% copper substituted core shell type iron/iron carbide as a negative electrode for application in energy storage. The NanoFe-Fe3C-Cu delivered 367 mAh g−1 at ≈80% current efficiency, successfully running for over 300 cycles. The superior electrode kinetics and performance were assessed by rate capability, galvanostatic, potentiodynamic polarization measurements in 6 M KOH electrolyte and at ambient temperature. Ex-situ XRD characterizations and SEM images of both the fresh and used electrode surfaces show that nanoparticles were found to be still intact with negligible particle agglomeration. The electrodes have shown stable performances with low capacity decay, whereas sulfur dissolution from the additive Bi2S3 was found to decrease the charging efficiency with time. This core-shell type structured nano material is, consequently, an auspicious anode candidate in alkaline-metal/air and Ni-Fe battery systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Electrochemical Society, 2017. Vol. 164, no 7, p. A1665-A1672
Keywords [en]
Renewable Energy Integration, Metal-Sulfide Additives, Electrochemical Properties, Anode Materials, Impedance Spectroscopy, Storage Systems, Performance, Carbon, Nanoparticles, Nanocomposites
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Research subject
Chemical Engineering; Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-210003DOI: 10.1149/2.1431707jesISI: 000404397300042Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85020553265OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-210003DiVA, id: diva2:1115992
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 39078-1
Note

QC 20170627

Available from: 2017-06-27 Created: 2017-06-27 Last updated: 2019-01-24Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Studies on Rechargeable Fe-air electrodes in Alkaline electrolyte
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Studies on Rechargeable Fe-air electrodes in Alkaline electrolyte
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Energy storage system is an important component in the energy system based on variable renewable energy sources into the grid. Energy storage system could contribute to decarbonization, energy security, offset the demand and supply of the electricity sector, especially for the electric grid. These can be either mechanical, electrochemical, chemical, electromagnetic or thermal devices. The most important functional characteristics of an energy storage system are capital cost, roundtrip efficiency, energy and power rating, response times and cycle life. Electrochemical energy storage systems (EES) have the following edge over the other systems: fast response time, relatively short duration of storage, size, high efficiency, a decentralized installation which is closer to generation or consumption site.

The focus of this thesis is on the development of cost-effective iron anode materials and electrocatalytic air electrodes for Fe-air batteries that potentially could become as an energy storage system. Iron-based systems are attractive due to their safety, cheapness, non-toxicity and ubiquitous availability of materials. However, both the anode and cathode parts have numerous drawbacks that need to be addressed. The anode exhibits poor charge efficiency, rate capability and low capacity utilization while the cathode has sluggish kinetics, poor activity, structural stability and the numbers of active non-noble metal catalysts are limited.

This work utilized Cu and Sn-doped iron nanomaterials and different additives (Bi2S3, CNT, LiOH) to enhance the performance of the iron electrode. The performance of the electrodes were evaluated using the charge/discharge cycling, rate capability, cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic and potentiodynamic polarization measurements, in operando charging measurements combined with mass spectrometry. The fresh and cycled electrodes and powders were characterized by ex-situ XRD, BET, SEM, TEM , XPS and Raman spectroscopy. The most striking results are the prevention of nanoparticle agglomeration, increased charging efficiency (80-91%), effect of Cu and Sn dopants on specific capacity (367-603 mAh g-1) and improved performance of the electrodes at high charge current densities.

In the subsequent air electrode part, non-precious metal La-doped CaMnOx, nano Co3O4 and NiFeOX electrocatalysts were synthesized using co-precipitation and hydrothermal methods. Both the single and mixed catalysts were used as bi-functional catalysts for oxygen reduction and evolution reactions (ORER). The catalysts were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, BET, Raman and XPS. The electrocatalytic activity and stability were assessed in alkaline solutions on gas diffusion electrodes and glassy carbon electrode by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), CV and rotating disk electrode (RDE). Furthermore, the mixed catalyst and NiFeOX showed excellent bifunctional performance such as high activity and stability achieved by the hybridization of the two catalysts and the effect of catalyst loading on the electrocatalytic performance. These findings can help to develop a cost-effective material for Fe-air batteries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2019. p. 108
Keywords
Fe-air battery; Cu/Sn-doped nanostructured iron electrodes, Alkaline electrolytes, Bi-functional OER/ORR catalyst, perovskite/spinel catalyst, NiFeOx, air electrode
National Category
Engineering and Technology Chemical Process Engineering Chemical Sciences
Research subject
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-241534 (URN)978-91-7873-087-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-03-01, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 39078-1
Note

QC 20190124

Available from: 2019-01-24 Created: 2019-01-23 Last updated: 2019-02-22Bibliographically approved

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Paulraj, Alagar R.

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