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Subglottal Pressure and Normalized Amplitude Quotient Variation in Classically Trained Baritone Singers
KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
2006 (English)In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 31, no 4, 157-165 p.Article in journal (Refereed) In press
Abstract [en]

The subglottal pressure (Ps) and voice source characteristics of five professional baritone singers have been analyzed and the normalized amplitude quotient (NAQ), defined as the ratio between peak-to-peak pulse amplitude and the negative peak of the differentiated flow glottogram and normalized with respect to the period time, was used as an estimate of glottal adduction. The relationship between Ps and NAQ has been investigated in female subjects in two earlier studies. One of these revealed NAQ differences between both singing styles and phonation modes, and the other, based on register differences in female musical theatre singers, showed that NAQ differed between registers for the same PPs value. These studies thus suggest that NAQ and its variation with PPs represent a useful parameter in the analysis of voice source characteristics. The present study aims at increasing our knowledge of the NAQ parameter further by finding out how it varies with pitch and PPs in professional classically trained baritone singers, singing at high and low pitch (278 Hz and 139 Hz, respectively). Ten equally spaced Ps values were selected from three takes of the syllable [pae:], initiated at maximum vocal loudness and repeated with a continuously decreasing vocal loudness. The vowel sounds following the selected PPs peaks were inverse filtered. Data on peak-to-peak pulse amplitude, maximum flow declination rate and NAQ are presented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 31, no 4, 157-165 p.
Keyword [en]
Baritone singers; Flow glottogram; Glottal adduction; Inverse filtering; Normalized amplitude quotient NAQ; Singing voice; Subglottal pressure; Voice source
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6461Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-33751253471OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-6461DiVA: diva2:11180
Note
QC 20100812Available from: 2006-11-29 Created: 2006-11-29 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Why so different? - Aspects of voice characteristics in operatic and musical theatre singing: Aspects of voice characteristics in operatic and musical theatre singing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Why so different? - Aspects of voice characteristics in operatic and musical theatre singing: Aspects of voice characteristics in operatic and musical theatre singing
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

This thesis addresses aspects of voice characteristics in operatic and musical theatre singing. The common aim of the studies was to identify respiratory, phonatory and resonatory characteristics accounting for salient voice timbre differences between singing styles.

The velopharyngeal opening (VPO) was analyzed in professional operatic singers, using nasofiberscopy. Differing shapes of VPOs suggested that singers may use a VPO to fine-tune the vocal tract resonance characteristics and hence voice timbre. A listening test revealed no correlation between rated nasal quality and the presence of a VPO.

The voice quality referred to as “throaty”, a term sometimes used for characterizing speech and “non-classical” vocalists, was examined with respect to subglottal pressure (Psub) and formant frequencies. Vocal tract shapes were determined by magnetic resonance imaging. The throaty versions of four vowels showed a typical narrowing of the pharynx. Throatiness was characterized by increased first formant frequency and lowering of higher formants. Also, voice source parameter analyses suggested a hyper-functional voice production.

Female musical theatre singers typically use two vocal registers (chest and head). Voice source parameters, including closed-quotient, peak-to-peak pulse amplitude, maximum flow declination rate, and normalized amplitude quotient (NAQ), were analyzed at ten equally spaced subglottal pressures representing a wide range of vocal loudness. Chest register showed higher values in all glottal parameters except for NAQ. Operatic baritone singer voices were analyzed in order to explore the informative power of the amplitude quotient (AQ), and its normalized version NAQ, suggested to reflect glottal adduction. Differences in NAQ were found between fundamental frequency values while AQ was basically unaffected.

Voice timbre differs between musical theatre and operatic singers. Measurements of voice source parameters as functions of subglottal pressure, covering a wide range of vocal loudness, showed that both groups varied Psub systematically. The musical theatre singers used somewhat higher pressures, produced higher sound pressure levels, and did not show the opera singers’ characteristic clustering of higher formants.

Musical theatre and operatic singers show highly controlled and consistent behaviors, characteristic for each style. A common feature is the precise control of subglottal pressure, while laryngeal and vocal tract conditions differ between singing styles. In addition, opera singers tend to sing with a stronger voice source fundamental than musical theatre singers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2006
Series
TRITA-CSC-A, ISSN 1653-5723 ; 2006:23
Keyword
operatic singing, musical theatre singing, voice source, subglottal pressure, flow glottogram, inverse filtering, formant frequencies, amplitude quotient (AQ)
National Category
Musicology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4198 (URN)987-91-7178-518-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2006-12-08, Sal F3, KTH, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 14:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20100812

Available from: 2006-11-29 Created: 2006-11-29 Last updated: 2015-06-02Bibliographically approved

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