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The Optimal Road Grade Design for Minimizing Ground Vehicle Energy Consumption
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5703-5923
2017 (English)In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, no 5, 700Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Reducing energy consumption of ground vehicles is a paramount pursuit in academia and industry. Even though the road infrastructural has a significant influence on vehicular fuel consumption, the majority of the R&D efforts are dedicated to improving vehicles. Little investigation has been made in the optimal design of the road infrastructure to minimize the total fuel consumption of all vehicles running on it. This paper focuses on this overlooked design problem and the design parameters of the optimal road infrastructure is the profile of road grade angle between two fixed points. We assume that all vehicles on the road follow a given acceleration profile between the two given points. The mean value of the energy consumptions of all vehicles running on the road is defined as the objective function. The optimization problem is solved both analytically by Pontryagin's minimum principle and numerically by dynamic programming. The two solutions agree well. A large number of Monte Carlo simulations show that the vehicles driving on the road with the optimal road grade consume up to 31.7% less energy than on a flat road. Finally, a rough cost analysis justifies the economic advantage of building the optimal road profile.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG , 2017. Vol. 10, no 5, 700
Keyword [en]
optimal control, road grade design, analytical solution, Pontryagin's minimum principle, dynamic programming
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-210379DOI: 10.3390/en10050700ISI: 000403048400119Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85036459521OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-210379DiVA: diva2:1119519
Funder
XPRES - Initiative for excellence in production research
Note

QC 20170704

Available from: 2017-07-04 Created: 2017-07-04 Last updated: 2017-12-15Bibliographically approved

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Feng, Lei

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