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NuSTAR and XMM-Newton observations of the Arches cluster in 2015: fading hard X-ray emission from the molecular cloud
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2017 (English)In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 468, no 3, 2822-2835 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present results of long Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR; 200 ks) and XMM-Newton (100 ks) observations of the Arches stellar cluster, a source of bright thermal (kT similar to 2 keV) X-rays with prominent Fe XXV K alpha 6.7 keV line emission and a nearby molecular cloud, characterized by an extended non-thermal hard X-ray continuum and fluorescent Fe K alpha 6.4 keV line of a neutral or low-ionization state material around the cluster. Our analysis demonstrates that the non-thermal emission of the Arches cloud underwent a dramatic change, with its homogeneous morphology, traced by fluorescent Fe K alpha line emission, vanishing after 2012, revealing three bright clumps. The declining trend of the cloud emission, if linearly fitted, is consistent with half-life decay time of similar to 8 yr. Such strong variations have been observed in several other molecular clouds in the Galactic Centre, including the giant molecular cloud Sgr B2, and point towards a similar propagation of illuminating fronts, presumably induced by the past flaring activity of Sgr A(star). We also detect a significant drop of the equivalent width of the fluorescent Fe Ka line, which could mean either that the new clumps have a different position along the line of sight or that the contribution of cosmic ray has become more dominant.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2017. Vol. 468, no 3, 2822-2835 p.
Keyword [en]
ISM: clouds, X-rays: individual: Arches cluster
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Physical Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-210466DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stx585ISI: 000402808700027OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-210466DiVA: diva2:1120468
Note

QC 20170706

Available from: 2017-07-06 Created: 2017-07-06 Last updated: 2017-07-06Bibliographically approved

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Poutanen, Juri
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CiteExportLink to record
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Citation style
  • apa
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