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Hybrid Routing in Next Generation IP Networks: QoS Routing Mechanisms and Network Control Strategies
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Communication networks have evolved from circuit-switched and hop-by-hop routed systems into hybrid data/optical networks using the Internet as a common backbone carrying narrow- and broad-band traffic offered by a multitude of access networks. This data/optical backbone is built around a multi-technology/multi-protocol routing architecture which runs the IP protocols in a collapsed IP stack where ATM and SONET/SDH have been replaced by the suite of Generalized Multiprotocol Label Switching (GMPLS) protocols. A further evolution referred to as ``IP over Photons'' or ``All IP - All Optical'' is expected where ``redundant intermediate layers'' will be eliminated to run IP directly on top of optical cross-connects (OXCs) with the expectation of achieving savings on operation expenditures (OPEX) and capital expenditures (CAPEX). ``IP over Photons'' has been stalled by the immaturity in the control and data plane technologies leading to complex and time-consuming manual network planning and configurations which require a group of ``layer experts'' to operate and maintain a hybrid data/optical network.

By making the status of each link and node of a data/optical network visible to a common control, GMPLS protocols have opened the way for automated operation and management allowing the different layers of an IP stack to be managed by a single network operator. GMPLS protocols provide the potential to make more efficient use of the IP backbone by having network management techniques such as Traffic Engineering (TE) and Network Engineering (NE), once the preserve of telecommunications, to be reinvented and deployed to effect different Quality of Service (QoS) requirements in the IP networks. NE moves bandwidth to where the traffic is offered to the network while TE moves traffic to where the bandwidth is available to achieve QoS agreements between the current and expected traffic and the available resources. However,several issues need to be resolved before TE and NE be effectively deployed in emerging and next generation IP networks. These include (1) the identification of QoS requirements of the different network layer interfaces of the emerging and next generation IP stack (2) the mapping of these QoS requirements into QoS routing mechanisms and network control strategies and (3) the deployment of these mechanisms and strategies within and beyond an Internet domain's boundaries to maximize the engineering and economic efficiency.

Building upon different frameworks and research fields, this thesis revisits the issue of Traffic and Network Engineering (TE and NE) to present and evaluate the performance of different QoS routing mechanisms and network control strategies when deployed at different network layer interfaces of a hybrid data/optical network where an IP over MPLS network is layered above an MP λS/Fiber infrastructure. These include mechanisms and strategies to be deployed at the IP/MPLS, MPLS/MP λS and MP λS/Fiber network layer interfaces. The main contributions of this thesis are threefold. First we propose and compare the performance of hybrid routing approaches to be deployed in IP/MPLS networks by combining connectionless routing mechanisms used by classical IGP protocols and the connection oriented routing approach borrowed from MPLS. Second, we present QoS routing mechanisms and network control strategies to be deployed at the MPLS/MP λS network layer interface with a focus on contention-aware routing and inter-layer visibility to improve multi-layer optimality and resilience. Finally, we build upon fiber transmission characteristics to propose QoS routing mechanisms where the routing in the MPLS and MP λS layers is conducted by Photonic characteristics of the fiber such as the availability of the physical link and its failure risk group probability.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2006.
Series
Trita-ICT-ECS AVH, ISSN 1653-6363 ; 06:08
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4213OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-4213DiVA: diva2:11272
Public defence
2006-12-12, Aula, KTH-Forum, Isafjordsgatan 39, Kista, 13:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100630Available from: 2006-12-07 Created: 2006-12-07 Last updated: 2010-06-30Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Online traffic engineering: the least interference optimization algorithm
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Online traffic engineering: the least interference optimization algorithm
2004 (English)In: Proceedings of the ICC2004 conference, 2004Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6524 (URN)
Note
QC 20100630Available from: 2006-12-07 Created: 2006-12-07 Last updated: 2010-06-30Bibliographically approved
2. Hybride traffic engineering: from constraint shortest path first to least path interference
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hybride traffic engineering: from constraint shortest path first to least path interference
2005 (English)In: South African Computer Journal, ISSN 1015-7999, Vol. 34, 2-10 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a new approach for routing flows in IP networks. The approach referred to as the <I>Least Path Interference (LPI)</I> is based on a route optimisation model which (1) moves the traffic away from path interfering links (the path interference quantifying the network reliability) to re-route fewer flows upon link failure and (2) maximises the link congestion distance (quantifying the network optimality) to reject fewer flows under congestion. LPI implements a hybrid traffic engineering model combining offline estimation of the path interference and online path selection. LPI is based on a simple path selection model where no changes to the traditional routing algorithms are required besides designing a new mixed cost metric to combine reliability and optimality. The Least Path Interfering Algorithm (LPIA ); a routing algorithm derived from LPI is applied to compute paths for the traffic offered to a 20- and 50-node networks. Simulation reveals (1) performance improvements compared to Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) and Constraint Shortest Path First (CSPF) routing in terms of routing optimality and network reliability and (2) the same performance as the recently proposed Least Interference Optimisation Algorithm (LIOA) algorithm with less signalling overheads.

National Category
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6525 (URN)
Note
QC 20111216Available from: 2006-12-07 Created: 2006-12-07 Last updated: 2011-12-16Bibliographically approved
3. On the relevance of using gene expression programming in destination-based traffic engineering
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the relevance of using gene expression programming in destination-based traffic engineering
2005 (English)In: Computational Intelligence and Security, 2005, Vol. 3801, 224-229 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper revisits the problem of Traffic Engineering (TE) to assess the relevance of using Gene Expression Programming (GEP) as a new fine-tuning algorithm in destination-based TE. We present a new TE scheme where link weights are computed using GEP and used as fine-tuning parameters in destination-based path selection. We apply the newly proposed TE scheme to compute the routing paths for the traffic offered to a 23- and 30-node test networks under different traffic conditions and differentiated services situations. We evaluate the performance achieved by the GEP algorithm compared to a memetic and the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) algorithms in a simulated routing environment using the NS packet level simulator. Preliminary results reveal the relative efficiency of GEP compared to the memetic algorithm and OSPF routing.

Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743 ; 3801
Keyword
Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence
National Category
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6526 (URN)10.1007/11596448_32 (DOI)
Conference
International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Security
Note
QC 20100630Available from: 2006-12-07 Created: 2006-12-07 Last updated: 2010-06-30Bibliographically approved
4. Traffic engineering next generation IP networks using gene expression programming
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Traffic engineering next generation IP networks using gene expression programming
2006 (English)In: Proceedings of the 2006 IEEE, 2006, 230-239 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper addresses the problem of Traffic Engineering (TE) to evaluate the performance of evolutionary algorithms when used as IP routing optimizers and assess the relevance of using "Gene Expression Programming (GEP)" as a new fine-tuning algorithm In destination- and How-based TE. We consider a TE scheme where link weights are computed using GEP and used as either fine-tuning parameters in Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) routing or static routing cost In Constraint Based Routing (CBR). The resulting OSPF and CBR, algorithms are referred to as OSPFgep and CBRgep. The GEP algorithm is based on a hybrid optimisation model where local search complements the global search implemented by classical evolutionary algorithms to improve the genetic individuals fitness through hill-climbing. We apply the newly proposed TE scheme to compute the routing paths for the traffic offered to a 23-, 28- and 30-node test networks under different traffic conditions and differentiated services situations. We evaluate the performance achieved by the OSPFgep, CBRgep algorithms and OSPFma,destination-based routing algorithm where OSPF path selection Is driven by the link weights computed by a Memetic Algorithm (MA). We compare the performance achieved by the OSPFgep algorithm to the performance of the OSPFma and OSPF algorithms in a simulated routing environment using NS. We also compare the quality of the paths found by the CBRgep algorithm to the quality of the paths computed by the Constraint Shortest Path First (CSPF) algorithm when routing bandwidth-guaranteed tunnels using connection-level simulation. Preliminary results reveal the relative efficiency of (1) the OSPFgep algorithm compared to both the OSPFma and OSPF algorithms and (2) the CBRgep algorithm compared to CSPF routing.

Keyword
Computer Science, Hardware & Architecture; Engineering, Electrical & Electronic; Telecommunications
National Category
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6527 (URN)
Conference
IFIP Network Operations & Management Symposium
Note
QC 20100630Available from: 2006-12-07 Created: 2006-12-07 Last updated: 2010-06-30Bibliographically approved
5. Online traffic engineering: a hybrid IGP/MPLS routing approach
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Online traffic engineering: a hybrid IGP/MPLS routing approach
2004 (English)In: Quality of Service in the Emerging Networking Panorama, SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN , 2004, Vol. 3266, 134-143 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The dualism of IGP and MPLS routing has raised a debate separating the IP community into divergent groups expressing different opinions concerning how the future Internet will be engineered. This paper presents an on-line traffic engineering model which uses a hybrid IGP+MPLS routing approach to achieve efficient routing of flows in IP networks. The approach referred to as Hybrid assumes a network-design process where an optimal network configuration is built around optimality, reliability and simplicity. The IGP+MPLS routing approach is applied to compute paths for the traffic offered to a 50-node network. Simulation reveals performance improvements compared to both IGP and MPLS routing in terms of several performance parameters including routing optimality, network reliability and network simplicity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN, 2004
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349 ; 3266
National Category
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6528 (URN)10.1007/978-3-540-30193-6_14 (DOI)978-3-540-23238-4 (ISBN)
Note

QC 20100630

Available from: 2006-12-07 Created: 2006-12-07 Last updated: 2017-03-27Bibliographically approved
6. Hybrid IGP+MPLS routing in next generation IP networks: an online traffic engineering model
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hybrid IGP+MPLS routing in next generation IP networks: an online traffic engineering model
2005 (English)In: QUALITY OF SERVICE IN MULTISERVICE IP NETWORKS, PROCEEDINGS / [ed] Marsan MA; Bianchi G; Listanti M; Meo M, 2005, Vol. 3375, 325-338 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Hybrid routing approaches which either combine the best of traditional IGP and MPLS routing or allow a smooth migration from traditional IGP routing to the newly proposed MPLS standard have scarcely been addressed by the IP community. This paper presents an on-line traffic engineering (TE) model which uses a hybrid routing approach to achieve efficient routing of flows in IP networks. The model assumes a network-design process where the IP flows are classified at the ingress of the network and handled differently into the core using a multiple metric routing mechanism leading to the logical separation of a physical network into two virtual networks: An IGP network carrying low bandwidth demanding (LBD) flows and an MPLS network where bandwidth-guaranteed tunnels are setup to route high bandwidth demanding (HBD) flows. The hybrid routing approach uses a route optimization model where (1) link weight optimization (LWO) is implemented in the IGP network to move the IP flows away from links that provide a high probability to become bottleneck for traffic engineering and (2) the MPLS network is engineered to minimize the interference among competing flows and route the traffic away from heavily loaded links. We show that a cost-based optimization framework can be used by an ISP to design simple and flexible routing approaches where different metrics reflecting the ISP ' s view of its TE objectives are deployed to improve the use and efficiency of a network. This is achieved through extensions to a mixed cost metric derived from the route optimization model. The IGP+MPLS routing approach is applied to compute paths for the traffic offered to a 15- and 50-node network. Preliminary simulation reveals performance improvements compared to both IGP and MPLS routing in terms of the routing optimality and the network reliability.

Series
LECTURE NOTES IN COMPUTER SCIENCE, ISSN 0302-9743 ; 3375
National Category
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6529 (URN)000228102100025 ()3-540-24557-X (ISBN)
Conference
3rd International Workshop on Quality of Service in Multiservice IP Networks
Note
QC 20100630Available from: 2006-12-07 Created: 2006-12-07 Last updated: 2010-07-16Bibliographically approved
7. Hybrid routing in next generation IP networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hybrid routing in next generation IP networks
2006 (English)In: Computer Communications, ISSN 0140-3664, E-ISSN 1873-703X, Vol. 29, no 7, 879-892 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a hybrid approach for routing flows in IP networks to achieve an optimal network configuration maximising bandwidth usage (optimality), minimising re-routing upon failure (reliability) and reducing the signalling overheads resulting from a full IP tunnelling (scalability). We formulate the routing of flows in IP networks as a service differentiated model where the IP flows are classified into high bandwidth demanding (LBD) and low bandwidth demanding (LBD) flows at the ingress of the network and handled differently into the core using a hybrid IGP+MPLS approach where the LBD flows are routed over the existing IGP paths while the HBD flows are carried over MPLS bandwidth-guaranteed tunnels. This model can be deployed in heterogenous network environments where HBD flows carrying real-time traffic and LBD flows transporting best-effort traffic are handled differently over a common transport network implementing traffic prioritization in response to natural or man-made emergencies. We consider the routing of flows within an IP domain's boundaries and evaluate the efficiency of the new routing approach under uniform and bursty traffic profiles. We apply the routing approach to compute paths for the traffic offered to a 20- and 50-node test networks. Simulation reveals that the hybrid routing approach outperforms both IGP and MPLS routing under the network conditions and test network models considered.

Keyword
online TE; hybrid routing; OSPF; LIOA; CSPF
National Category
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6530 (URN)10.1016/j.comcom.2005.08.009 (DOI)000237839500009 ()
Note
QC 20100630Available from: 2006-12-07 Created: 2006-12-07 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
8. On achieving LSP/λSP multiplexing/separation in converged data/optical networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On achieving LSP/λSP multiplexing/separation in converged data/optical networks
2006 (English)In: Journal of Optical Networking, ISSN 1536-5379, Vol. 5, no 4, 280-292 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We revisit the concept of path multiplexing/separation and its impact on the recovery performance in converged data/optical networks. We formulate the rerouting of failed tunnels as a path set finding problem subject to quality of service (QoS) and network control constraints. We solve this problem using a heuristic solution that is based on a cost metric that (1) uses congestion in the optical layer to guide routing decisions and (2) engineers converged multiprotocol label switching networks and multiprotocol lambda switching (MPLS/MPλ S) networks to achieve path multiplexing/separation when rerouting the label switched paths (LSPs) and the lambda switched paths (λ SPs). We apply this solution to achieve multilayer resilience using a mixed scheme where protection switching is complemented by path restoration. We evaluate the performance of this scheme when rerouting the tunnels carrying the traffic offered to 15- and 23-node networks. Simulation reveals performance improvements of the proposed scheme when compared with classical recovery schemes that use several other existing algorithms such as minimum hop algorithm (MHA), open shortest path first (OSPF), and widest shortest path (WSP) in terms of the rerouting efficiency and bandwidth usage optimization.

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6531 (URN)10.1364/JON.5.000280 (DOI)
Note
QC 20111216Available from: 2006-12-07 Created: 2006-12-07 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
9. On achieving bandwidth-aware LSP/LambdasSP multiplexing/separation in multilayer networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On achieving bandwidth-aware LSP/LambdasSP multiplexing/separation in multilayer networks
2006 (English)In: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, ISSN 0733-8716, E-ISSN 1558-0008Article in journal (Refereed) Accepted
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6532 (URN)
Note

QC 20111110

Available from: 2006-12-07 Created: 2006-12-07 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
10. Inter-layer communication for faster restoration in a 10Gigabit Ethernet based network
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inter-layer communication for faster restoration in a 10Gigabit Ethernet based network
2006 (English)In: Reliability of Optical Fiber Components, Devices, Systems, and Networks III, 2006, Vol. 6193Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The restoration time in high capacity optical networks has to be kept as short as possible in order to avoid a huge loss of data. This paper discusses several methods to improve restoration time in optical networks and we propose mechanisms of implementing such inter-layer communication in order to decrease restoration time for a 10Gigabit Ethernet based network.

Series
PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY OF PHOTO-OPTICAL INSTRUMENTATION ENGINEERS (SPIE), ISSN 0277-786X ; 6193
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6533 (URN)10.1117/12.662996 (DOI)000239004500037 ()2-s2.0-33746757668 (Scopus ID)0-8194-6249-7 (ISBN)
Conference
Conference on Reliability of Optical Fiber Components, Devices, Systems, and Networks III
Note
QC 20100630Available from: 2006-12-07 Created: 2006-12-07 Last updated: 2011-10-07Bibliographically approved
11. On using fast signalling to improve restoration in multilayer networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On using fast signalling to improve restoration in multilayer networks
2006 (English)In: Optical Fiber Communication and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, 2007. OFC/NFOEC 2007., 2006, 1-12 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We present a fast signalling scheme where intra-layer signalling and inter-layer communication are used to reduce the recovery operation time. Simulation reveals the efficiency of the scheme compared to normal signalling strategies.

Keyword
Computer simulation, Multilayer neural networks, Signal processing
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6534 (URN)10.1109/OFC.2007.4348504 (DOI)2-s2.0-39749088150 (Scopus ID)978-155752831-5 (ISBN)1557528314 (ISBN)
Conference
OFC/NFOEC 2007 - Optical Fiber Communication and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2007; Anaheim, CA; United States; 25 March 2007 through 29 March 2007
Note

QC 20100913

Available from: 2006-12-07 Created: 2006-12-07 Last updated: 2014-12-08Bibliographically approved
12. Traffic and network engineering in emerging generation IP networks: a bandwidth on demand model
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Traffic and network engineering in emerging generation IP networks: a bandwidth on demand model
2006 (English)In: Proceedings of the 1st IEEE International Workshop on Bandwidth on Demand / [ed] Hausheer D; Rabbat R; Hamada T; Stiller B; Walrand J, 2006, 36-43 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper assesses the performance of a network management scheme where network engineering (NE) is used to complement traffic engineering (TE) in a multi-layer setting where a data network is layered above an optical network. We present a TE strategy which is based on a multi-constraint optimization model consisting of finding bandwidth-guaranteed IP tunnels subject to contention avoidance minimization and bandwidth usage maximization constraints. The TE model is complemented by a NE model which uses a bandwidth trading mechanism to rapidly re-size and re-optimize the established tunnels (LSPs/lambda SPs) under Quality of Service (QoS) mismatches between the traffic carried by the tunnels and the resources available for carrying the traffic. The resulting TE+NE strategy can be used to achieve bandwidth on demand (BoD) in emerging generation IP networks using a (G)MPLS-like integrated architecture in a cost effective way. We evaluate the performance of this hybrid strategy when routing, re-routing and re-sizing the tunnels carrying the traffic offered to a 23-node test network.

Keyword
Engineering, Electrical & Electronic; Telecommunications
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6535 (URN)000245375900007 ()2-s2.0-46249102069 (Scopus ID)978-1-4244-0793-4 (ISBN)
Conference
1st IEEE International Workshop on Bandwidth on Demand
Note
QC 20100630Available from: 2006-12-07 Created: 2006-12-07 Last updated: 2010-06-30Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
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  • nn-NO
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  • Other locale
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