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Playing the accent: comparing striking velocity and timing in an ostinato rhythm performed by four drummers
KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
2004 (English)In: Acta Acoustica united with Acustica, ISSN 1610-1928, E-ISSN 1861-9959, Vol. 90, no 4, 762-776 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Four percussion players’ strategies for performing an accented stroke were studied by capturing movement trajectories.The players played on a force plate with markers on the drumstick, hand, and lower and upper arm. Therhythmic pattern – an ostinato with interleaved accents every fourth stroke – was performed at different dynamiclevels, tempi and on different striking surfaces attached to the force plate. The analysis displayed differencesbetween the movement trajectories for the four players, which were maintained consistently during all playingconditions. The characteristics of the players’ individual movement patterns were observed to correspond wellwith the striking velocities and timing in performance. The most influential parameter on the movement patternswas the dynamic level with increasing preparatory heights and striking velocity for increasing dynamic level. Theinterval beginning with the accented stroke was prolonged, the amount of lengthening decreasing with increasingdynamic level.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2004. Vol. 90, no 4, 762-776 p.
Keyword [en]
Data reduction, Feedback, Instruments, Oscillations, Surface phenomena, Synchronization, Velocity measurement, Bow velocity, Drumsticks, Ostinato rhythm, Rythmic strokes
National Category
Musicology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6550ISI: 000223441700018Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-4243180407OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-6550DiVA: diva2:11293
Note
QC 20101001 QC 20111018. Stockholm Music Acoustics Conference (SMAC 03). Stockholm, SWEDEN. AUG 06-09, 2003Available from: 2005-09-20 Created: 2005-09-20 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. On the beat: human movement and timing in the production and perception of music
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the beat: human movement and timing in the production and perception of music
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

This thesis addresses three aspects of movement, performance and perception in music performance. First, the playing of an accent, a simple but much used and practiced element in drumming is studied, second, the perception of gradually changing tempo, and third, the perception and communication of specific emotional intentions through movements during music performance.

Papers I and II investigated the execution and interpretation of an accent in drumming, performed under different playing conditions. Players' movements, striking velocities and timing patterns were studied for different tempi, dynamic levels and striking surfaces. It was found that the players used differing movement strategies and that interpreted the accent differently, reflected in their movement trajectories. Strokes at higher dynamic levels were played from a greater average height and with higher striking velocities. All players initiated the accented strokes from a greater height, and delivered the accent with increased striking velocity compared to the unaccented strokes. The interval beginning with the accented stroke was also prolonged, generally by delaying the following stroke. Recurrent cyclic patterns were found in the players' timing performances. In a listening test, listeners perceived grouping of the strokes according to the cyclic patterns.

Paper III concerned the perception of gradual tempo changes in auditory sequences. Using an adaptive test procedure subjects judged stimuli consisting of click sequences with either increasing or decreasing tempo, respectively. Each experiment included three test sessions at different nominal tempi (80, 120, and 180~beats per minute). The results showed that ten of the eleven subjects showed an inherent bias in their perception of tempo drift. The direction and magnitude of the bias was consistent between test sessions but varied between individuals. The just noticeable differences for tempo drift agreed well with the estimated tempo drifts in production data, but were much smaller than earlier reported thresholds for tempo drift.

Paper IV studied how emotional intent in music performances is conveyed to observers through the movements of the musicians. Three players of marimba, bassoon, and saxophone respectively, were filmed when playing with the expressive intentions Happiness, Sadness, Anger and Fear. Observers rated the emotional content and movement cues in the videos clips shown without sound. The results showed that the observers were able to identify the intentions Sadness, Anger, and Happiness, but not Fear. The rated movement cues showed that an Angry performance was characterized by jerky movements, Happy performances by large, and somewhat fast and jerky movements, and Sad performances by slow, and smooth movements.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2005. x, 77 p.
Series
Trita-TMH, ISSN 1104-5787 ; 2005:5
National Category
Musicology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-422 (URN)91-7178-134-X (ISBN)
Public defence
2005-09-29, Salongen, KTHB, Osquars backe 31, Stockholm, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101004Available from: 2005-09-20 Created: 2005-09-20 Last updated: 2010-10-04Bibliographically approved

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