Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
On the beat: human movement and timing in the production and perception of music
KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

This thesis addresses three aspects of movement, performance and perception in music performance. First, the playing of an accent, a simple but much used and practiced element in drumming is studied, second, the perception of gradually changing tempo, and third, the perception and communication of specific emotional intentions through movements during music performance.

Papers I and II investigated the execution and interpretation of an accent in drumming, performed under different playing conditions. Players' movements, striking velocities and timing patterns were studied for different tempi, dynamic levels and striking surfaces. It was found that the players used differing movement strategies and that interpreted the accent differently, reflected in their movement trajectories. Strokes at higher dynamic levels were played from a greater average height and with higher striking velocities. All players initiated the accented strokes from a greater height, and delivered the accent with increased striking velocity compared to the unaccented strokes. The interval beginning with the accented stroke was also prolonged, generally by delaying the following stroke. Recurrent cyclic patterns were found in the players' timing performances. In a listening test, listeners perceived grouping of the strokes according to the cyclic patterns.

Paper III concerned the perception of gradual tempo changes in auditory sequences. Using an adaptive test procedure subjects judged stimuli consisting of click sequences with either increasing or decreasing tempo, respectively. Each experiment included three test sessions at different nominal tempi (80, 120, and 180~beats per minute). The results showed that ten of the eleven subjects showed an inherent bias in their perception of tempo drift. The direction and magnitude of the bias was consistent between test sessions but varied between individuals. The just noticeable differences for tempo drift agreed well with the estimated tempo drifts in production data, but were much smaller than earlier reported thresholds for tempo drift.

Paper IV studied how emotional intent in music performances is conveyed to observers through the movements of the musicians. Three players of marimba, bassoon, and saxophone respectively, were filmed when playing with the expressive intentions Happiness, Sadness, Anger and Fear. Observers rated the emotional content and movement cues in the videos clips shown without sound. The results showed that the observers were able to identify the intentions Sadness, Anger, and Happiness, but not Fear. The rated movement cues showed that an Angry performance was characterized by jerky movements, Happy performances by large, and somewhat fast and jerky movements, and Sad performances by slow, and smooth movements.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2005. , x, 77 p.
Series
Trita-TMH, ISSN 1104-5787 ; 2005:5
National Category
Musicology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-422ISBN: 91-7178-134-X (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-422DiVA: diva2:11296
Public defence
2005-09-29, Salongen, KTHB, Osquars backe 31, Stockholm, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101004Available from: 2005-09-20 Created: 2005-09-20 Last updated: 2010-10-04Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. The playing of an accent: Preliminary observations from temporal and kinematic analysis of percussionists
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The playing of an accent: Preliminary observations from temporal and kinematic analysis of percussionists
2000 (English)In: Journal of New Music Research, ISSN 0929-8215, Vol. 29, no 3, 225-233 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The movements and timing when playing an interleaved accent in drumming were studied for three professionals and one amateur. The movement analysis showed that the subjects prepared for the accented stroke by raising the drumstick up to a greater height. The movement strategies used, however, differed widely in appearance.

The timing analysis showed two basic features, a slow change in tempo over a longer time span ("drift"), and a short ter variation between adjacent intervals ("flutter"). Cyclic patterns, with every fourth interval prolonged, could be seen in the flutter. The lengthening of the interval, beginning with the accented stroke, seems to be a common way for the player to give the accent more emphasis. A listening test was performed to investigate if these cyclic patterns conveyed information to a listener about the grouping of the strokes. Listeners identified sequences where the magnitude of the inter-onset interval fluctuations were large during the cyclic patterns.

National Category
Musicology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6549 (URN)10.1076/jnmr.29.3.225.3090 (DOI)000168323100005 ()
Note
QC 20101001Available from: 2005-09-20 Created: 2005-09-20 Last updated: 2010-10-01Bibliographically approved
2. Playing the accent: comparing striking velocity and timing in an ostinato rhythm performed by four drummers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Playing the accent: comparing striking velocity and timing in an ostinato rhythm performed by four drummers
2004 (English)In: Acta Acoustica united with Acustica, ISSN 1610-1928, Vol. 90, no 4, 762-776 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Four percussion players’ strategies for performing an accented stroke were studied by capturing movement trajectories.The players played on a force plate with markers on the drumstick, hand, and lower and upper arm. Therhythmic pattern – an ostinato with interleaved accents every fourth stroke – was performed at different dynamiclevels, tempi and on different striking surfaces attached to the force plate. The analysis displayed differencesbetween the movement trajectories for the four players, which were maintained consistently during all playingconditions. The characteristics of the players’ individual movement patterns were observed to correspond wellwith the striking velocities and timing in performance. The most influential parameter on the movement patternswas the dynamic level with increasing preparatory heights and striking velocity for increasing dynamic level. Theinterval beginning with the accented stroke was prolonged, the amount of lengthening decreasing with increasingdynamic level.

Keyword
Data reduction, Feedback, Instruments, Oscillations, Surface phenomena, Synchronization, Velocity measurement, Bow velocity, Drumsticks, Ostinato rhythm, Rythmic strokes
National Category
Musicology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6550 (URN)000223441700018 ()2-s2.0-4243180407 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20101001 QC 20111018. Stockholm Music Acoustics Conference (SMAC 03). Stockholm, SWEDEN. AUG 06-09, 2003Available from: 2005-09-20 Created: 2005-09-20 Last updated: 2011-10-18Bibliographically approved
3. Ability to determine continuous drift in auditory sequences: Evidence for bias in listeners' perception of tempo
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ability to determine continuous drift in auditory sequences: Evidence for bias in listeners' perception of tempo
2005 (English)In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
National Category
Musicology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6551 (URN)
Note
QS 2010 QS 20120319Available from: 2005-09-20 Created: 2005-09-20 Last updated: 2012-03-19Bibliographically approved
4. Visual perception of expressiveness in musicians' body movements
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Visual perception of expressiveness in musicians' body movements
2007 (English)In: Music perception, ISSN 0730-7829, E-ISSN 1533-8312, Vol. 24, no 5, 433-454 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

MUSICIANS OFTEN MAKE GESTURES and move their bodies expressing a musical intention. In order to explore to what extent emotional intentions can be conveyed through musicians' movements, participants watched and rated silent video clips of musicians performing the emotional intentions Happy, Sad, Angry, and Fearful. In the first experiment participants rated emotional expression and movement character of marimba performances. The results showed that the intentions Happiness, Sadness, and Anger were well communicated, whereas Fear was not. Showing selected parts of the player only slightly influenced the identification of the intended emotion. In the second experiment participants rated the same emotional intentions and movement character for performances on bassoon and soprano saxophone. The ratings from the second experiment confirmed that Fear was not communicated whereas Happiness, Sadness, and Anger were recognized. The rated movement cues were similar in the two experiments and were analogous to their audio counterpart in music performance.

Keyword
expression, movement perception, music performance, emotions, gesture analysis
National Category
Musicology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6552 (URN)10.1525/mp.2007.24.5.433 (DOI)000247228500002 ()2-s2.0-34250768958 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20101004. Uppdaterad från submitted till published (20101004).Available from: 2005-09-20 Created: 2005-09-20 Last updated: 2010-10-04Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(1099 kB)1610 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 1099 kBChecksum MD5
7028f95ffb03883b92e7359566a6f715f560cdaafea6036347708ae0221ca9940ad46827
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Dahl, Sofia
By organisation
Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH
Musicology

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 1610 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 2602 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf