Polyelectrolyte Complexes: Their Characterization and use for Modification of Wood Fibre Surfaces
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
For economical reasons filler particles and less expensive fibre raw materials are more frequently used in papermaking. This influences the mechanical properties of the formed papers in a negative way and it is therefore necessary to add strength-enhancing agents to the papermaking furnish. Traditionally cationic starch has been the dominating additive used for strength enhancement but new techniques are continuously being developed and in the present work the use of polyelectrolyte complexes (PEC) for improvements of different paper strength properties has been evaluated. Large focus has also been given to evaluating the properties of the polyelectrolyte complexes since these properties are largely dependant on molecular mass of the polyelectrolytes, the mixing conditions and ionic strength of the polyelectrolyte solutions.
The PEC formation was studied between chemicals already used for strength enhancing purposes in real papermaking systems, i.e. poly (amido-amine) epichlorohydrin (PAE) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). The PEC formation was studied with respect to fundamental characteristics and the ability for use as strength additives. The PEC formation was also studied using model polyelectrolytes (PEL) poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH), as the cationic component, and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA), as the anionic components. The fundamental studies involve the PEC formation by varying the mixing ratio between the polyelectrolytes, the charge density or molecular weight of a component, structure of the one polyelectrolyte component, the mixing order, together with solution conditions. The main techniques used for these purposes were the static and dynamic light scattering, AFM tapping mode and Cryo-TEM. The adsorption of PECs onto surfaces of silica and lignin was investigated, using the stagnation point adsorption reflectometry (SPAR) and QCM-D (quartz crystal microgravimetry with dissipation). With these two techniques the amount of adsorbed chemical is obtained an also the viscoelastic properties of the adsorbed layer. The stability of PECs towards an increase in salt concentrations was investigated and the PECs were stable up to 0.2-0.4 M NaCl before complete dissolution, suggesting that the driving force for the formation of the PECs (from CMC-PAE) is a combination of the entropic effect of the released counterions and an enthalpy contribution from the interaction between the polymer segments. The PECs did not change their 3D-structure upon drying. It was also found that the swollen 3D structure of the complexes is achieved by an incorporation of a large amount of water into the complexes. Calculations based on the collected results show that the complexes consist of between 60 % and 95 % water. The PECs formed from PAA and PAH displayed higher water content when formed from low PEL concentration and salt concentrations up to 0.1 M NaCl than the PMAA-PAH PECs. At high PEL concentration and high salt concentration the opposite was observed.
The use of the complexes as dry strength additives has two large benefits. First of all the 3D structure of the complexes allows for an efficient bridging between the microscopically rough fibre surfaces. Secondly the complexes allows for a higher saturation adsorption of polyelectrolytes on the fibre surface compared with a single polyelectrolyte addition. The PEC addition also leads to an increase in density, but the PECs showed the same benefits as beating when added to the unbeaten fibres. The effect on the fibre material, with regard to paper properties, varies depending on the pulp used.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2006. , 61 p.
Trita-FPT-Report, ISSN 1652-2443 ; 2006:42
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4225OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-4225DiVA: diva2:11327
2006-12-15, SCA salen, Mittuniversitet, Holmgatan 10, Sundsvall, 13:00
Pelton, Robert, Professor
QC 201008252006-12-122006-12-122010-08-25Bibliographically approved
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