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Influence of cathode geometry on electron dynamics in an ultrafast electron microscope
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Material Physics, MF.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Material Physics, MF.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Material Physics, MF.
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2017 (English)In: Structural Dynamics, ISSN 2329-7778, Vol. 4, no 5, article id 054303Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Efforts to understand matter at ever-increasing spatial and temporal resolutions have led to the development of instruments such as the ultrafast transmission electron microscope (UEM) that can capture transient processes with combined nanometer and picosecond resolutions. However, analysis by UEM is often associated with extended acquisition times, mainly due to the limitations of the electron gun. Improvements are hampered by tradeoffs in realizing combinations of the conflicting objectives for source size, emittance, and energy and temporal dispersion. Fundamentally, the performance of the gun is a function of the cathode material, the gun and cathode geometry, and the local fields. Especially shank emission from a truncated tip cathode results in severe broadening effects and therefore such electrons must be filtered by applying a Wehnelt bias. Here we study the influence of the cathode geometry and the Wehnelt bias on the performance of a photoelectron gun in a thermionic configuration. We combine experimental analysis with finite element simulations tracing the paths of individual photoelectrons in the relevant 3D geometry. Specifically, we compare the performance of guard ring cathodes with no shank emission to conventional truncated tip geometries. We find that a guard ring cathode allows operation at minimum Wehnelt bias and improve the temporal resolution under realistic operation conditions in an UEM. At low bias, the Wehnelt exhibits stronger focus for guard ring than truncated tip cathodes. The increase in temporal spread with bias is mainly a result from a decrease in the accelerating field near the cathode surface. Furthermore, simulations reveal that the temporal dispersion is also influenced by the intrinsic angular distribution in the photoemission process and the initial energy spread. However, a smaller emission spot on the cathode is not a dominant driver for enhancing time resolution. Space charge induced temporal broadening shows a close to linear relation with the number of electrons up to at least 10 000 electrons per pulse. The Wehnelt bias will affect the energy distribution by changing the Rayleigh length, and thus the interaction time, at the crossover.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Crystallographic Association , 2017. Vol. 4, no 5, article id 054303
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URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-212248DOI: 10.1063/1.4994004ISI: 000414175400007Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85025124413OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-212248DiVA, id: diva2:1133987
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QC 20170817

Available from: 2017-08-17 Created: 2017-08-17 Last updated: 2017-11-20Bibliographically approved

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Ji, ShaozhengPiazza, LucaCao, GaolongWeissenrieder, Jonas
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