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Parking Benefit Districts – The transferability of a measure to reduce car dependency to a European context
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
2017 (English)In: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 56, p. 129-140Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Parking Benefit Districts (PBDs) are a parking measure where revenues from on-street parking charges are returned to the area where they are charged, and stakeholders in the area participate in prioritizing how the revenues are to be spent. The purpose of this article is to analyse whether and how a PBD programme can be transferred to a European context, and whether it can contribute to reduced car dependency. The first part of the article provides an overview of some salient features of PBD programmes in the USA through a literature survey. This is followed by results from interviews and from a focus group with civil servants and a deputy mayor in Stockholm. The results are used to analyse the conditions for implementing a PBD programme in Stockholm, as well as for analysing how such a programme can be designed to reduce car dependency. A main conclusion is that there are no legal barriers that render a PBD programme impossible in Stockholm, even though there are some legal restrictions. We also conclude that a PBD programme might contribute to reduced car dependency in two different ways, either by increasing acceptance for parking charges or by improving the alternatives to private cars. There seem to be several aspects in a PBD programme that can contribute to increased acceptance for parking charges. However, there is no tradition of working with these principles in Sweden and the programme's redistributional effects need to be taken into account when designing the programme.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017. Vol. 56, p. 129-140
Keywords [en]
Acceptability, Mobility services, Parking Benefit District, Parking charges, Participatory budgeting
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-212221DOI: 10.1016/j.trd.2017.08.004ISI: 000412377000010Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85026903620OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-212221DiVA, id: diva2:1134035
Note

QC 20170817

Available from: 2017-08-17 Created: 2017-08-17 Last updated: 2018-12-22Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Towards a sustainable mobility paradigm? An assessment of three policy measures
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards a sustainable mobility paradigm? An assessment of three policy measures
2019 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Transportation and mobility are important components in the organisation and structure of people´s daily activities, but the transport sector has considerable environmental impacts, e.g. greenhouse gas emissions and land use. Governance of the sector is difficult, as there is an ongoing a shift in governance structures away from hierarchical towards more collaborative governance. Given these challenges, it may be necessary to shift the focus from mobility to accessibility and to adopt a new paradigm in transport planning.

This thesis critically investigates what a paradigm shift might mean for the Swedish national and municipal transport, housing and parking planning context and examines what a Social Practice Theory framework could contribute in analysing such a paradigm shift. This is done by investigating three different policies that are arguably in line with a shift in planning paradigms.

All three policy measures open up decision making to different stakeholders or even citizens, reflecting a shift in governance, and all highlight the need to shift the focus from physical infrastructure to accessibility, through collaboration with a range of stakeholders. However, in each case, current conditions and practices render a transition more difficult.

The Swedish Transport Administration (STA) states the importance of reducing the need to travel and of using existing infrastructure more efficiently, and stipulates that these types of measures should be considered before new infrastructure investments. However, the STA has a limited mandate to finance these measures, resulting in ambiguous signals and frustration among regional STA officials. This thesis shows that making the STA’s mandate more function-oriented would facilitate a transition in line with the sustainable mobility paradigm.

Another policy measure discussed in the thesis is a shift from minimum parking requirements, where developers are required to build a minimum number of parking spaces, to flexible parking requirements, where the number of parking spaces provided depends on the local context and where other mobility services may replace the need for physical parking spaces. In this thesis, people who have bought apartments in developments with flexible parking requirements were surveyed in order to understand their practices and how they perceive and plan to use the mobility services provided.

The feasibility of using a new parking management tool, Parking Benefit Districts, in a European context (Stockholm, Sweden) was assessed. In a Parking Benefit Districts system, parking charges are implemented, increased or extended to curb parking, with the revenues being returned to the area where the charges are imposed and with citizens, or other stakeholders, participating in decisions on how to use the revenues. The underlying intention is to increase acceptance of parking charges, as on-street parking charges may be deemed necessary by planners, but are unpopular among citizens and other stakeholders. This thesis shows that there are no legal barriers to implementing a Parking Benefit District programme in Sweden, but there are some limitations on how revenues can be used. Moreover, Sweden does not have this planning tradition and the programme may not be perceived as legitimate. Another important issue is equity and participation, e.g. it is important to consider who to include and how to include them.

Overall, the policy measures studied involve a shift away from an infrastructure-centred to a people-centred approach. However, other planning practices and institutions may push in different directions. This thesis shows that a Social Practice Theory framework can be useful as a lens through which researchers and policymakers view possible changes needed to achieve a sustainable mobility paradigm.

Abstract [sv]

Transport och mobilitet är viktiga komponenter i organiseringen och strukturen av människors dagliga aktiviteter. Transportsektorn ger emellertid upphov till stor miljöpåverkan, exempelvis växthusgasutsläpp och markanvändning. Governance av sektorn är komplicerad och det har skett ett skifte från en hierarkisk styrning mot en större delaktighet och samarbete mellan olika aktörer. Givet dessa utmaningar kan det finnas behov av att flytta fokus från att palnera för rörlighet till tillgänglighet samt att ändra planeringsparadigmer.

Syftet med avhandlingen är dels att kritiskt undersöka vad ett paradigmskifte skulle kunna innebära i det svenska nationella och kommunala transport-, bostads- och parkeringsplaneringssammanhanget, dels att undersöka hur ett Social Practice Theory ramverk skulle kunna bidra till förståelsen av ett sådant paradigmskifte. För att göra detta har avhandlingen undersökt tre policys som är i linje med ett paradigmskifte.

Alla policys som diskuteras i avhandlingen öppnar upp beslutsfattande för olika aktörer eller medborgare. Vidare lyfter alla diskuterade strategier fram behovet av att flytta fokus från fysisk infrastruktur till tillgänglighet och att samarbete mellan olika intressenter är nödvändigt. I varje fall finns dock förhållanden och praktiker som försvårar omställningen. Trafikverket framhåller exempelvis vikten av att minska behovet av att resa och av att använda befintlig infrastruktur mer effektivt, och de menar att dessa åtgärder bör övervägas innan nya infrastrukturinvesteringar. Samtidigt har Trafikverket begränsat mandat att finansiera dessa åtgärder, vilket ger upphov till tvetydiga signaler och frustration bland regionala planerare på Trafikverket. Papper I argumenterar för att ett mer funktionsorienterat mandat skulle kunna underlätta en ett paradigmskifte i linje med en ’sustainable mobility paradigm’.

I paper II diskuteras en förändring från miniminorm för parkeringsplatser vid bostäder, där byggherrarna måste bygga minst ett visst antal parkeringsplatser, till flexibla parkeringstal, där antal parkeringsplatser som ska byggas beror på den lokala kontexten och där andra mobilitetstjänster kan ersätta behovet av parkeringsplatser. I detta paper studeras personer som har köpt lägenheter i flerbostadshus med flexibla parkeringstal. Målet är att förstå dessa människors praktiker och hur de använder och uppfattar de mobilitetstjänster som tillhandahålls.

I papper III diskuteras möjligheten att använda ett nytt parkeringsverktyg, Parking Benefit Districts, i en europeisk kontext. Parkering Benefit Districts är ett koncept där parkeringsavgifter på gatan införs, höjs eller utökas. Intäkterna från parkeringsavgifterna återförs därefter till det område där de togs ut, och medborgare, eller andra intressenter i området, deltar sedan i beslutet om hur intäkterna ska användas. Syftet med denna åtgärd har traditionellt varit att öka acceptansen för parkeringsavgifter, eftersom parkeringsavgifter på gatan kan anses vara fördelaktiga av planerare, men impopulära bland medborgare och andra intressenter. Paper III nämner i analysen att det inte finns några legala hinder för att genomföra ett Parking Benefit District program i Sverige, men det finns vissa begränsningar för hur intäkterna kan användas. Planerare i Stockholms stad hävdar dock att Sverige inte har den här planeringstraditionen och påpekar att ett sådant åtgärd kanske inte uppfattas som legitim. En annan viktig fråga att diskutera är jämlikhet och deltagande. Det finns en risk att vissa grupper i samhället inte deltar i samma utsträckning och det är därför viktigt att överväga vem som ska involveras samt hur det ska ske.

I slutet diskuteras resultaten i relation till forskningsfrågorna. Alla de studerade policys skiftar fokus från fysisk infrastruktur till människors behov. Samtidigt finns det andra planerings praktiker och institutioner som drar samhällsutvecklingen i motsatt riktning. I avhandlingen diskuteras även hur ett Social Practice ramverk kan hjälpa både forskare och beslutsfattare att se de förändringar som behövs för att nå en ’sustainable mobility paradigm’.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2019. p. 34
Series
TRITA-ABE-DLT ; 191
Keywords
Sustainable mobility paradigm, Social Practice Theory, Mobility services, flexible parking requirements
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Research subject
Planning and Decision Analysis
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-240630 (URN)978-91-7873-081-0 (ISBN)
Presentation
2019-02-07, Ocean and Pacific, Teknikringen 10b, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
VINNOVASwedish Transport Administration
Note

QC 20181228

Available from: 2018-12-28 Created: 2018-12-22 Last updated: 2019-01-03Bibliographically approved

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