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Structural functionalization of industrial softwood kraft lignin for simple dip-coating of urea as highly efficient nitrogen fertilizer
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
(English)In: Article in journal (Refereed) Accepted
Abstract [en]

Urea coating was conducted using polylactic acid (PLA) blended with industrial softwood kraft lignin after applying a dip-coating technique. The lignin was pre-functionalized via esterification that increased coat layer hydrophobicity or via amination that created an organically bound nitrogen structure. The PLA film reference had many pores, while the film from the PLA-lignin derivative complex was highly homogeneous and had no pores. The coat thickness was generally adjustable by repeating the coating process reaching up to 81% weight against the urea core. After coating, urea release in water was largely delayed, 20-30 and 6-10 times as long as that of uncoated urea or PLA-coated urea respectively. The coated urea will be a highly effective nitrogen fertilizer due to the controlled release after coating, the slow release from the organically bound nitrogen structure, and the expectedly extra stability against urease hydrolysis and microorganism nitrification after using the lignin structure.

National Category
Agricultural Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-214043OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-214043DiVA: diva2:1139936
Note

QC 20170912

Available from: 2017-09-10 Created: 2017-09-10 Last updated: 2017-09-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Physical, Chemical and Biochemical Modifications of Industrial Softwood Kraft Lignin for Different Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Physical, Chemical and Biochemical Modifications of Industrial Softwood Kraft Lignin for Different Applications
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Various technical lignins, e.g. industrial Softwood Kraft lignin (SKL), are now largely available while they are generally underutilized due to their heterogeneous and complicated structures and/or the poor properties. SKL has here been modified by physical, chemical and biochemical methods for preparation of lignin microspheres, phenol substitution in phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin preparation and preparation of highly efficient fertilizers.

Physically, a brand-new slow and exhaustive solution evaporation process was developed for the highly efficient and productive preparation of microsphere structures. Highly homogenous SKL hollow microspheres were obtained and for the first time, urea encapsulating SKL microspheres were similarly prepared which could be an excellent controlled release urea fertilizer.

Chemically, Mannich reaction (one type of amination) was deeply investigated by including for the first time an LC-MS study of vanillin reaction, resulting in the establishment of a fast and reliable lignin reactivity (for phenol substation in PF resin) quantification method. In addition, SKL was functionalized using the Mannich reaction or esterification, leading to an improved hydrophobicity and compatibility for blending with polylactic acid (PLA). Using dip-coating technique for the first time, PLA-functionalised SKL-coated urea pellets were prepared, leading expectedly to a highly efficient urea fertilizer with simultaneous controlled- and slow- release and biological stabilization effects.

Biochemically, SKL was demethylated via incubation with different laccase-mediator combinations, which in principle will increase its reactivity in PF resin preparation. However, polymerization occurred which would decrease the reactivity.  The overall effects need to be further investigated.

Conclusively, broader or larger scale SKL applications can expectedly be realized after the development of SKL modifications tailored towards the optimum desired structures and properties.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. 83 p.
Series
TRITA-CHE Report 2017:34, ISSN 1654-1081
National Category
Polymer Chemistry
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-213985 (URN)978-91-7729-492-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-09-18, Kollegiesalen F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 170912

Available from: 2017-09-12 Created: 2017-09-07 Last updated: 2017-10-05Bibliographically approved

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Li, JiebingWang, Miao

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