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Pools and fluxes of carbon in three Norway spruce ecosystems along a climatic gradient in Sweden.
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0926-3304
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
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2008 (English)In: Biogeochemistry, ISSN 0168-2563, E-ISSN 1573-515X, Vol. 89, no 1, 7-25 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents an integrated analysis of organic carbon (C) pools in soils and vegetation, within-ecosystem fluxes and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) in three 40-year old Norway spruce stands along a north-south climatic gradient in Sweden, measured 2001-2004. A process-orientated ecosystem model (CoupModel), previously parameterised on a regional dataset, was used for the analysis. Pools of soil organic carbon (SOC) and tree growth rates were highest at the southernmost site (1.6 and 2.0-fold, respectively). Tree litter production (litterfall and root litter) was also highest in the south, with about half coming from fine roots (< 1 mm) at all sites. However, when the litter input from the forest floor vegetation was included, the difference in total litter input rate between the sites almost disappeared (190-233 g C m(-2) year(-1)). We propose that a higher N deposition and N availability in the south result in a slower turnover of soil organic matter than in the north. This effect seems to overshadow the effect of temperature. At the southern site, 19% of the total litter input to the O horizon was leached to the mineral soil as dissolved organic carbon, while at the two northern sites the corresponding figure was approx. 9%. The CoupModel accurately described general C cycling behaviour in these ecosystems, reproducing the differences between north and south. The simulated changes in SOC pools during the measurement period were small, ranging from -8 g C m(-2) year(-1) in the north to +9 g C m(-2) year(-1) in the south. In contrast, NEE and tree growth measurements at the northernmost site suggest that the soil lost about 90 g C m(-2) year(-1).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. Vol. 89, no 1, 7-25 p.
Keyword [en]
soil carbon, boreal ecosystems, climatic gradient, CoupModel, root litter, dissolved organic carbon
National Category
Agricultural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6649DOI: 10.1007/s10533-007-9136-9ISI: 000257201300002Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-46249089502OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-6649DiVA: diva2:11415
Note
Uppdaterad från manuskript till artikel: 20100922 QC 20100922Available from: 2006-12-15 Created: 2006-12-15 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Carbon dynamics in spruce forest ecosystems - modelling pools and trends for Swedish conditions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Carbon dynamics in spruce forest ecosystems - modelling pools and trends for Swedish conditions
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Carbon (C) pools and fluxes in northern hemisphere forest ecosystems are attracting increasing attention concerning predicted climate change. This thesis studied C fluxes, particularly soil C dynamics, in spruce forest ecosystems in relation to interactions between physical/biological processes using a process-based ecosystem model (CoupModel) with data for Swedish conditions. The model successfully described general patterns of C and N dynamics in managed spruce forest ecosystems with both tree and field layers. Using regional soil and plant data, the change in current soil C pools was -3 g C m-2 yr-1 in northern Sweden and +24 g C m-2 yr-1 in southern Sweden. Simulated climate change scenarios resulted in increased inflows of 16-38 g C m-2 yr-1 to forest ecosystems throughout Sweden, with the highest increase in the south and the lowest in the north. Along a north-south transect, this increased C sequestration mainly related to increased tree growth, as there were only minor decreases in soil C pools. Measurements at one northern site during 2001-2002 indicated large soil C losses (-96 g C m-2 yr-1), which the model successfully described. However, the discrepancy between these large losses and substantially smaller losses obtained in regional simulations was not explained. A simulation based on Bayesian calibration successfully reproduced measured C, water and energy fluxes, with estimated uncertainties for major components of the simulated C budget. Site-specific measurements indicated a large contribution from field layer fine roots to total litter production, particularly in northern Sweden. Mean annual tree litter production was 66% higher at the most southerly site (240 g C m-2 yr-1 compared with 145 g C m-2 yr-1 in the north), but when field and bottom layers were included the difference decreased to 16% (total litter production 276 g C m-2 yr-1 and 239 g C m-2 yr-1 respectively). Regional simulations showed that decomposition rate for the stable soil C fraction was three times higher in northern regions compared with southern, providing a possible explanation why soil C pools in southern Sweden are roughly twice as large as those in the north.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2006. viii, 25 p.
Series
Trita-LWR. PHD, ISSN 1650-8602 ; 1029
Keyword
boreal, climate, CoupModel, net ecosystem production, nitrogen, process-based model, soil carbon
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4240 (URN)978-91-7178-544-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2006-12-19, D3, Lindstedtsvägen 5, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00
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Note
QC 20100922Available from: 2006-12-15 Created: 2006-12-15 Last updated: 2010-09-22Bibliographically approved

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