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Characterization of factors interacting in CGI machining: machinability - material microstructure - material physical properties
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Machine and Process Technology.
2008 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

The Swedish truck industry is forced to find new material solutions to achieve lighter engines with increased strength. Customers and new environmental regulations demand both higher specific power and more environmentally friendly trucks, and this places a rising pressure on the manufactures. This demand could be met by increasing the peak pressure in the cylinders. Consequently, a more efficient combustion is obtained and the exhaust lowered. This however exposes the engine to higher loads and material physical properties must therefore be enhanced.

Today, alloyed gray iron is the predominantly used engine material. This material cannot meet the requirements of tomorrow’s engines. Compacted Graphite Iron has good potential to be the replacement; it opens new design opportunities with its superior strength, which can lead to smaller, more efficient engines and additional power. The question is: how will manufacturing be affected?

The main goal of this thesis is to identify and investigate the main factors’ effect and their individual contributions on CGI machining.  When the relationship between the fundamental features; machinability, material microstructure, and material physical properties, are revealed, then the CGI material can be optimized, both regarding the manufacturing process and design requirements. The basic understanding is developed mainly through experimental analysis. No attempt has been made to optimize the material to be used as engine material in this thesis.

The thesis demonstrates the importance of having good casting process control. It also illustrates the microstructural properties’ effects on CGI machinability, and what new aspects of machining must be taken into account, compared to gray iron.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology , 2008. , ix, 43 p.
Series
Trita-IIP, ISSN 1650-1888 ; 08-11
Keyword [en]
CGI, Compacted Graphite Iron, milling, cast iron, machinability, material microstructure, material physical properties
Keyword [sv]
CGI, kompaktgrafitjärn, fräsning, gjutjärn, skärbarhet, mikrostruktur, materialegenskaper
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-9258ISBN: 978-91-7415-158-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-9257DiVA: diva2:114189
Presentation
2008-11-14, M311, Brinellsalen, Brinellvägen 68, Stockholm, 10:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
OPTIMA CGI
Note
QC 20101105Available from: 2008-11-07 Created: 2008-10-14 Last updated: 2011-05-19Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Investigation of the Effect of Microstructures on CGI Machining
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigation of the Effect of Microstructures on CGI Machining
2007 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this investigation is to evaluate the effect of microstructures on CGI machining and to compare to gray iron reference material. Special designed workpieces, to reproduce real situations, were machined in face milling. The project planning was based on factorial analysis of design of experiments. The results showed that the strongest parameter affecting tool life is the pearlite content. Furthermore it is clear that due to imprecision of manufacturing process it is difficult to obtain test specimens with homogenous microstructures and corresponding varying mechanical properties, when the specimen presents a complex geometrical form. Thin sections found in walls tend to have higher nodularity, resulting in spherical graphite. To refine the investigation of the effect of microstructures on CGI machining it would be preferred to use test specimens without holes or slots to minimise noise in the factor analysis.

Series
Trita-IIP, ISSN 1650-1888 ; 07-06
Keyword
Microstructure, CGI, face milling, machinability, mechanical properties, section effect, cutting forces, tool wear
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-25918 (URN)
Conference
Swedish Production Symposium, Gothenburg, Sweden, 2007
Note
QC 20101104Available from: 2010-11-04 Created: 2010-11-04 Last updated: 2011-11-21Bibliographically approved
2. Analysis of Tool Wear in CGI Machining
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of Tool Wear in CGI Machining
2008 (English)In: IMETI 2008: INTERNATIONAL MULTI-CONFERENCE ON ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION, VOL I, PROCEEDINGS, 2008, 34-39 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this study the tool wear and wear mechanisms on coated cemented carbide inserts were investigated in turning of Compacted Graphite Iron (CGI) materials with different nodularity. Investigation of how small changes in nodularity affect the wear behaviour of inserts in CGI machining has not earlier been done. The inserts were examined in LOM, SEM and in EDX. The tool wear could on the basis of their wear appearance be classified in three different wear categories; A, B and C. In the wear category A, abrasive wear, adhesive wear and delamination wear could be seen. In the wear category B, the predominant wear mechanism was chipping. The wear appearance in wear category C indicated attrition wear and dissolution via diffusion. Classification of the wear mechanisms gave knowledge that could be used in tool design. The results showed that increasing nodularity has impact on wear at moderate and high cutting speed but not at lower cutting speed. Machining of all materials at high cutting speed, 400 m/min, led to complete degradation of the edge line. A small difference in nodularity from 5% to 20% has more significant impact on wear than from 20% to 62%. This seemed to be correlated with the difference in ultimate tensile strength between the materials.

Series
Trita-IIP, ISSN 1650-1888 ; 08-07
Keyword
Compacted Graphite Iron, machining, tool wear, coated cemented carbides, nodularity
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-25922 (URN)000263828900007 ()2-s2.0-84893180061 (Scopus ID)
Conference
International Multi-Conference on Engineering and Technological Innovation, Orlando, FL, JUN 29-JUL 02, 2008
Note
QC 20101105Available from: 2010-11-05 Created: 2010-11-05 Last updated: 2010-11-05Bibliographically approved
3. Analysis of compacted graphite iron machining by investigation of tool temperature and cutting force
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of compacted graphite iron machining by investigation of tool temperature and cutting force
2008 (English)In: 1st International Conference on Process Machine Interactions: Hannover, Germany, 2008Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Series
Trita-IIP, ISSN 1650-1888 ; 08-08
Keyword
Compacted Graphite Iron (CGI), cutting temperature, nodularity, FEM, cutting force
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-25921 (URN)978-3-939026-95-2 (ISBN)
Note
QC 20101104Available from: 2010-11-04 Created: 2010-11-04 Last updated: 2011-11-21Bibliographically approved

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