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Recent investigations in HFCs substitution with lower GWP synthetic alternatives: Focus on energetic performance and environmental impact
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration. ISTENER Research Group, University Jaume I, Castellón de la Plana, 12071, Spain.
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
2017 (English)In: International journal of refrigeration, ISSN 0140-7007, E-ISSN 1879-2081, Vol. 82, p. 288-301Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Kigali's amendment on Montreal Protocol has recognized the great impact of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) on climate change. In the European Union, the Regulation (EU) No. 517/2014 (F-gas Regulation) controls the use of HFCs in several applications. This paper reviews the recent investigations performed because of F-gas Regulation, with focus on lower global warming potential (GWP) synthetic alternatives. The GWP limit and the date of prohibition have an influence on the studies found for each application. The major relevance of the studies has been observed on mobile air conditioners for pure hydrofluoroolefins (HFOs), possibly caused by the earlier control. Additionally, a great number of studies have been found for stationary refrigeration systems using several mixtures and residential air conditioners using R32. An important number of articles investigate synthetic alternatives for domestic refrigerators given the flammability barriers for hydrocarbons in some countries. Despite higher GWP allowance on cascade supermarket systems, few articles are available on this topic. Given the extent of the current studies and the rate of new refrigerant developments, an increase in studies using the new synthetic mixture is expected in the coming years.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017. Vol. 82, p. 288-301
Keywords [en]
Global warming potential, HFO/HFC mixtures, Refrigeration, Air conditioning, F-gas regulation
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-214840DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2017.06.026ISI: 000423259600001Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85026881157OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-214840DiVA, id: diva2:1143838
Projects
Effsys Expand 08
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Note

QC 20170925

Available from: 2017-09-22 Created: 2017-09-22 Last updated: 2019-09-02Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. New refrigerants for vapour compression refrigeration and heat pump systems: evaluation in a context of the requirements set by the F-gas Regulation and the Paris Agreement goals.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>New refrigerants for vapour compression refrigeration and heat pump systems: evaluation in a context of the requirements set by the F-gas Regulation and the Paris Agreement goals.
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Given the global commitment to reduce the impact of fluorinated gases on climate and the regulations controlling their use in the European Union (EU), this thesis investigates new refrigerants that have been recently proposed to meet the demands of the refrigeration industry in the EU, which must satisfy the legislative requirements of the F-gas Regulation and facilitate meeting the goals of the Paris Agreement.

The legislative requirements of the EU have intensified refrigerant development with reduced GWP. New refrigerants have been identified in the form of six new substances and 40 new refrigerant mixtures that have been added to the ANSI/ASHRAE 34 standard during a period following the proposal for the F-gas Regulation.

New refrigerants have been theoretically analysed in comparison with the commonly used fluorinated refrigerants R134a, R404A and R410A. While new refrigerants provide a variation in operating parameters when used in a refrigeration, air conditioning or heat pump (RACHP) system, none of the new refrigerants can be considered being fully design compatible with R134a, R404A or R410A.

Several commercially available refrigerants have been further evaluated in experimental studies to analyse their suitability for replacing R134a and R404A in existing systems with regards to their thermal properties, requirements for component safety and energy efficiency. R450A and R513A have been analysed as alternatives to R134a in a small capacity refrigeration system, and an R449A was studied in a retrofit of an R404A supermarket indirect system. It was shown that the analysed refrigerants can replace baseline HFCs in the analysed systems, but the variation in energetic performance and main operation parameters should be taken into account when considering such replacement.

LCCP metric has been used to analyse the overall climate impact of a heat pump system using refrigerants with various GWP values. It was shown that most climate impact from an RACHP system is due to indirect emissions relating to energy use. Thus, addressing the overall climate impact of RACHP systems is necessary to facilitate meeting the goals of the Paris Agreement. It is possible to facilitate a comparative LCCP analysis by addressing the uncertainties of the input data.

Abstract [sv]

Med tanke på det globala åtagandet att minska effekterna av fluorerade gaser på klimatet och regler som styr deras användning i Europeiska unionen (EU), undersöker denna avhandling nya köldmedier som nyligen har föreslagits för att möta kraven från kylindustrin i EU, och som måste uppfylla lagstiftningskraven i F-gas förordningen och underlätta att Parisavtalets mål uppfylls.

Lagkraven i EU har intensifierat utvecklingen av köldmedier med reducerad GWP. Nya köldmedier har identifierats i form av sex nya ämnen och 40 nya köldmedieblandningar som har lagts till ANSI/ASHRAE 34-standarden efter det att förslaget till F-gasförordningen publicerats.

Nya köldmedier har analyserats i teoretisk jämförelse med de ofta använda fluorerade köldmedierna R134a, R404A och R410A. Medan nya köldmedier ger en variation i driftsparametrar när de används i ett kyl-, luftkonditionerings- eller värmepumpssystem, kan inget av de nya köldmedierna anses vara helt designkompatibelt med R134a, R404A eller R410A.

Flera kommersiellt tillgängliga köldmedier har utvärderats vidare i experimentella studier för att analysera deras lämplighet för att ersätta R134a och R404A i befintliga system med avseende på deras termiska egenskaper, krav på komponenternas säkerhet och energieffektivitet. R450A och R513A har analyserats som alternativ till R134a i ett kylsystem med liten kapacitet, och R449A studerades i en retrofit av ett indirekt R404A system i en livsmedelsbutik. Det visades att de analyserade köldmedierna kan ersätta befintliga HFC:er i de analyserade systemen, men variationen i energiprestanda och huvuddriftparametrar bör beaktas när man överväger en sådan ersättning.

LCCP-analys har använts för att analysera den totala klimatpåverkan av ett värmepumpsystem med köldmedier med olika GWP-värden. Det visades att den största klimatpåverkan från ett RACHP-system beror på indirekta utsläpp relaterade till energianvändning. Således är det nödvändigt att redovisa och ta hänsyn till den totala klimatpåverkan av RACHP-system för att uppfylla målen i Parisavtalet. Det är möjligt att underlätta en jämförande LCCP-analys genom att ta itu med osäkerheterna i inmatningsdata.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Universitetsservice US-AB, 2019. p. 111
Series
TRITA-ITM-AVL ; 2019:25
Keywords
refrigerant, retrofit, drop-in, HFC, HFO, F-gas Regulation, Kigali Amendment, Montreal protocol, Life cycle climate performance, LCCP, climate change
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-257530 (URN)978-91-7873-296-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-09-24, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-09-02 Created: 2019-09-02 Last updated: 2019-09-02Bibliographically approved

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