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Satellite dependency of GNSS phase biases between receivers and between signals
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geodesy and Satellite Positioning. Lantmäteriet.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8871-2659
(English)In: Journal of Geodetic Science, ISSN 2081-9919, E-ISSN 2081-9943Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

The existence of hardware induced phase biases might influence the accuracy in precise positioning if not handled properly. This is extra problematic if the biases are dependent on the satellite tracked, as these biases no longer will be common between the satellites and thus are not absorbed by the receiver clock term of the positioning solution. In this paper, we carried out two studies to investigate whether there exists a satellite dependency of the relative phase biases. Even though small in size, satellite dependent variations were found in both cases.

In the first case, relative receiver phase biases were studied, while the satellite dependency of relative phase biases between signals (e.g. between carrier phases from C/A-code and P-code tracking) was investigated in the second case. The biases in the first case had a size of 0.8 mm between the satellites with the largest and smallest values, and additionally showed temporal variations that were consistent over time. The corresponding size of the biases second case was 3.5 mm, and no temporal variations were found. 

Keyword [en]
GNSS, hardware delays, phase biases, satellite dependency
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Geodesy and Geoinformatics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-214842OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-214842DiVA: diva2:1143848
Note

QC 20170925

Available from: 2017-09-22 Created: 2017-09-22 Last updated: 2017-09-26Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Hardware biases and their impact on GNSS positioning
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hardware biases and their impact on GNSS positioning
2017 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

GNSS hardware biases appear in code and phase observations, and originates both from the receiver and satellite hardware. These biases influence the accuracy in precise GNSS positioning if not handled properly.

This thesis is based on two papers, where one is a review paper published in GPS Solutions, and the other is a research paper currently in review (resubmitted after minor revision) for Journal of Geodetic Science. The first paper compiles current results and gives an overview of those situations where biases are of the greatest importance for precise positioning. The second paper investigates the satellite dependency in two cases of relative phase biases.

In the first paper, a review is given on how hardware biases influence precise GNSS positioning in various situations. These can roughly be divided into five cases: positioning not employing the ionosphere free combination to which the satellite clock corrections are aligned, GNSS based ionospheric modeling, determination of the phase ambiguity as an integer in PPP, and positioning with GLONASS.

In the second paper, the satellite dependency for two cases of relative phase biases are investigated: relative between-receiver biases in single differenced phase observations from two receivers, relative between-signals biases in observation differences between two signals recorded by the same receiver and associated with the same carrier frequency. In both these cases a satellite dependency was discovered. The first case showed a difference of 0.8 mm between the greatest and smallest values, while the corresponding difference in the second case was 3.5 mm.

It was also discovered that the biases in the first case varied periodically over time, and with a period of one sidereal day. The exact cause for these variations could however not be determined in the experiment, even though multipath could be excluded as their source.

Abstract [sv]

Hårdvaru-relaterade biases kan beskrivas som små systematiska fel som uppkommer i kod- och bärvågs-observationer vid GNSS-mätning. Dessa uppstår i hårdvaran hos både satellit och mottagare, och inverkar på positionsosäkerheten vid noggrann GNSS-positionering om de inte hanteras.

Denna avhandling är baserad på två artiklar, varav den ena är publicerad i GPS Solutions, och den andra är under granskning (återinskickad efter en mindre omarbetning) för Journal of Geodetic Science. Den första artikeln ger en överblick över hårdvaru-relaterade biases och de situationer då de är som mest betydelsefulla för noggrann positionering. Den andra artikeln undersöker om det eventuellt existerar ett satellit-beroende hos två fall av hårdvaru-relaterade biases för bärvågsobservationer.

I den första artikeln tas fem fall upp som är särskilt betydelsefulla gällande hårdvaru-relaterade biases. Dessa är: positionering som inte använder den jonosfärsfria linjärkombination av GNSS-observationer som mottagna satellit-klock-korrektioner är anpassade för, GNSS-baserad jonosfärsmodellering, heltalsbestämning av periodobekanta vid PPP-positionering, positionering med flera GNSS-system, och positionering med Glonass specifikt.

I den andra artikeln undersöks satellit-beroendet för två fall: relativa bärvågsobservationer mellan två mottagare, relative bärvågsobservationer mellan två signaler observerade av samma mottagare och med samma bärvågsfrekvens. I båda fallen upptäcktes ett satellitberoende. Variationerna i första fallet visade en differens mellan största och minsta värdet på ungefär 0.8 mm, medan motsvarande värde i andra fallet var ungefär 3.5 mm.

Det visade sig också att hårdvaru-relaterade biases i det första fallet varierade periodiskt över tiden, med en period av ett sideriskt dygn. Den exakta orsaken för dessa variationerna kunde ej bestämmas, även om flervägsstörningar kunde uteslutas som källa.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. 36 p.
Series
TRITA-SOM, ISSN 1653-6126 ; 2017-08
Keyword
GNSS positioning, Hardware biases, multi-GNSS, GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, BeiDou
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Geodesy and Geoinformatics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-214940 (URN)978-91-7729-542-6 (ISBN)
Presentation
2017-10-27, Rum 3085, L-huset, Drottning Kristinas väg 30, Stockholm, 13:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20170926

Available from: 2017-09-26 Created: 2017-09-25 Last updated: 2017-09-27Bibliographically approved

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