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Super resolution imaging reveals details in hyperglycemic induced apoptosis in kidney cells
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3669-9848
Karolinska Institutet.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics. Karolinska Institutet.
Karolinska Institutet.
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The role of the Bcl-family proteins in the mitochondrial apoptotic process is well described with biochemical and molecular methods in studies of isolated mitochondria and transfected cell lines. There is however little knowledge about the mechanisms for Bcl protein interaction leading to apoptosis in intact cells. In particular, the time sequence and location for Bcl protein interaction has so far only been described in hypothetical models.Here we have used Stimulated Emission Depletion (STED) microscopy and Single Molecule Localization Microscopy (SMLM) to study the apoptotic process in immune-stained rat renal epithelia cells exposed to 20 mM glucose (HG) and to study its rescue by ouabain. To assess distance between Bcl-2 proteins, we used the nearest-neighbor algorithm. The anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xLl was predominantly expressed on mitochondria in control cells, and remained so throughout the process, although its abundance decreased. After 2h HG the apoptosis-inducing protein BAD had translocated from the cytoplasm to the mitochondria where it clustered with Bcl-xL. This occurred before an increase in reactive oxygen species and was dependent on activation of the PI3K –AKT pathway. According to current concepts, Bcl-xL interacts with the apoptotic protein Bax on the mitochondria under control conditions to translocate Bax back to the cytosol1. We found that Bax started to accumulate on the mitochondria after 4h HG and, surprisingly, that the interaction between Bcl-xL and Bax became more pronounced during the course of the apoptotic process. After 6h HG Bax also interacted with the non-specific ion transporter VDAC; an interaction described to lead to penetration of the inner mitochondrial membrane and mark the point of no return.

Keyword [en]
Super-resolution, STED, SMLM, diabetes
National Category
Biophysics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-215075OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-215075DiVA: diva2:1146012
Note

QC 20171003

Available from: 2017-10-01 Created: 2017-10-01 Last updated: 2017-10-03Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Quantitative bioimaging in single cell signaling
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantitative bioimaging in single cell signaling
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Imaging of cellular samples has for several hundred years been a way for scientists to investigate biological systems. With the discovery of immunofluorescence labeling in the 1940’s and later genetic fluorescent protein labeling in the 1980’s the most important part in imaging, contrast and specificity, was drastically improved. Eversince, we have seen a increased use of fluorescence imaging in biological research, and the application and tools are constantly being developed further.

Specific ion imaging has long been a way to discern signaling events in cell systems. Through use of fluorescent ion reporters, ionic concentrations can be measured inliving cells as result of applied stimuli. Using Ca2+ imaging we have demonstrated that there is a inverse influence by plasma membrane voltage gated calcium channels on angiotensin II type 1 receptor (a protein involved in blood pressure regulation). This has direct implications in treatment of hypertension (high blood pressure),one of the most common serious diseases in the western civilization today with approximately one billion afflicted adults world wide in 2016.

Extending from this more lower resolution live cell bioimaging I have moved into super resolution imaging. This thesis includes works on the interpretation of super resolution imaging data of the neuronal Na+, K+ - ATPase α3, a receptor responsible for maintaining cell homeostasis during brain activity. The imaging data is correlated with electrophysiological measurements and computer models to point towards possible artefacts in super resolution imaging that needs to be taken into account when interpreting imaging data. Moreover, I proceeded to develop a software for single-molecule localization microscopy analysis aimed for the wider research community and employ this software to identify expression artifacts in transiently transfected cell systems.

In the concluding work super-resultion imaging was used to map out the early steps of the intrinsic apoptotic signaling cascade in space and time. Using superresoultion imaging, I mapped out in intact cells at which time points and at which locations the various proteins involved in apoptotic regulation are activated and interact.

Abstract [sv]

Avbildning av biologiska prover har i flera hundra år varit ett sätt för forskare att undersöka biologiska system. Med utvecklingen av immunofluoresens inmärkn-ing och fluoresens-mikroskopi förbättrades de viktigaste aspekterna av mikroskopi,kontrast och specificitet. Sedan 1941 har vi sett kontinuerligt mer mångsidigt och frekvent användning av fluorosense-mikroskopi i biologisk forskning.

Jon-mikroskopi har länge varit en metod att studera signalering i cell-system. Genom användning av fluorosenta jon-sensorer går det att mäta variationer avjon koncentrationer i levande celler som resultat av yttre påverkan. Genom att använda Ca2+ mikroskopi har jag visat att det finns en omvänd koppling mellan kalcium-kanaler i plasma-membran och angiotensin II typ 1 receptorn (ett proteininvolverat i blodtrycksreglering). Detta har direkta implikationer för behandlingav högt blodtryck, en av de mer vanliga sjukdomarna i västvärlden idag med överen miljard drabbade patienter i världen 2016.

Efter detta projekt vidgades mitt fokus till att inkludera superupplösnings-mikroskopi. Denna avhandling inkluderar ett arbete fokuserat på tolkningen av superupplösnings-mikroskopi data från neuronal Na+, K+ - ATPase α3, en jon-pump som återställer cellernas jonbalans i samband med cell signalering. Mikroskopi-datan korreleras mot elektrofysiologi experiment och modeller för att illustrera möjliga artefakter i superupplösnings-mikroskopi som måste tas i beaktande i samband med tolkning av data.

Jag fortsatte med att utveckla mjukvara för analys av data från singel-molekyl-lokalisations-mikroskopi där fokuset för mjukvaran framförallt varit på användarvänligheten. Detta då jag hoppas att den kommer vara användbar för ett bredare forskingsfält. Mjukvaran användes även i ett separat projekt för att identifiera överuttrycks-artefakter i transfekterade celler.

I det avslutande arbetet använder jag superupplösnings-mikroskopi för att karakterisera de tidiga stegen i mitokondriell apoptos. Jag identifierar när och var i cellen de olika proteinerna involverade i apoptos signaleringen är aktiverade och interagerar.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Kungliga Tekniska högskolan, 2017. 52 p.
Series
TRITA-FYS, ISSN 0280-316X ; 64
Keyword
Super resolution imaging, fluoresence, bioimaging, cells, FRET, cluster analysis, labeling, image analysis.
National Category
Biophysics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-215076 (URN)978-91-7729-546-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-10-27, Air and Fire, Science for Life Laboratory, Tomtebodavägen 23a, Solna, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20171003

Available from: 2017-10-03 Created: 2017-10-01 Last updated: 2017-10-03Bibliographically approved

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