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From HCI to HRI: Designing Interaction for a Service Robot
KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Service robots are mobile, embodied artefacts that operate in co presence with their users. This is a challenge for human-robot interaction (HRI) design. The robot’s interfaces must support users in understanding the system’s current state and possible next actions. One aspect in the design for such interaction is to understand users’ preferences and expectations by involving them in the design process. This thesis takes a user-centered design (UCD) perspective and tries to understand the different user roles that exist in service robotics in order to consider possible design implications. Another important aim in the thesis is to understand the spatial management that occurs in face-to-face encounters between humans and robotic systems.

The Cero robot is an office “fetch-and-carry” robot that supports a user in the transportation of light objects in an office environment. The iterative, user-centered design of the graphical-user interface (GUI) for the Cero robot is presented in Paper I. It is based upon the findings from multiple prototype design- and evaluation iterations. The GUI is one of the robot’s interfacing components, i.e., it is to be seen in the overall interplay of the robot’s physical design and other interface modalities developed in parallel with the GUI. As interaction strategy for the GUI, a graphical representation based upon simplification of the graphical elements as well as hiding the robot system’s complexity in sensing and mission execution is recommended.

The usage of the Cero robot by a motion-impaired user over a period of three months is presented in Paper II. This longitudinal user study aims to gain insights into the daily usage of such an assistive robot. This approach is complementary to the described GUI design and development process as it allows empirically investigating situated use of the Cero robot as novel service application over a longer period of time with the provided interfaces. Findings from this trial show that the robot and its interfaces provide a benefit to the user in the transport of light objects, but also implies increased independence. The long-term study also reveals further aspects of the Cero robot system usage as part of a workplace setting, including the social context that such a mobile, embodied system needs to be designed for.

During the long-term user study, bystanders in the operation area of the Cero robot were observed in their attempt to interact with it. To understand better how such bystander users may shape the interaction with a service robot system, an experimental study investigates this special type and role of robot users in Paper III. A scenario in which the Cero robot addresses and asks invited trial subjects for a cup of coffee is described. The findings show that the level of occupation significantly influences bystander users’ willingness to assist the Cero robot with its request.

The joint handling of space is an important part of HRI, as both users and service robots are mobile and often co-present during interaction. To inform the development of future robot locomotion behaviors and interaction design strategies, a Wizard-of Oz (WOZ) study is presented in Paper IV that explores the role of posture and positioning in HRI. The interpersonal distances and spatial formations that were observed during this trial are quantified and analyzed in a joint interaction task between a robot and its users in Paper V. Findings show that a face-to-face spatial formation and a distance between ~46 to ~122 cm is dominant while initiating a robot mission or instructing it about an object or place.

Paper VI investigates another aspect on the role of spatial management in the joint task between a robot and its user based upon the study described in Papers IV and V. Taking the dynamics of interaction into account, the findings are that users structure their activities with the robot and that this organizing is observable as small movements in interaction. These small adaptations in posture and orientation signify the transition between different episodes of interaction and prepare for the next interaction exchange in the shared space. The understanding of these spatial management behaviors allow designing human-robot interaction based upon such awareness and active handling of space as a structuring interaction element.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2006.
Series
Trita-CSC-A, ISSN 1653-5723 ; 2006
Keyword [en]
Human-Computer Interaction, Human-Robot Interaction
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4255ISBN: 978-91-7178-550-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-4255DiVA: diva2:11491
Public defence
2007-01-26, sal F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 10:00
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100617Available from: 2006-12-29 Created: 2006-12-29 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Involving users in the design of a mobile office robot
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Involving users in the design of a mobile office robot
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2004 (English)In: IEEE transactions on systems, man and cybernetics. Part C, Applications and reviews, ISSN 1094-6977, E-ISSN 1558-2442, Vol. 34, no 2, 113-124 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper describes the experiences from the iterative design of a fetch-and-carry-robot, to be used by motion-impaired people in an office environment. A user-centered approach was chosen, involving several steps of information elicitation to inform the design. We describe the main elements of the design process, the communication and interaction components of the final prototype system, and an evaluation of the system in the form of a longitudinal study. Results from this study confirmed that continuous testing with users is extremely important in the design process for service robots. The trials have also revealed that interaction design for robots should not focus only on the individual user, but that other members in the environment can be seen "secondary users" or "bystanders" who tend to relate to the robot actively in various ways. We conclude that these social and collaborative issues should be studied in future research.

Keyword
human factors; human-robot interaction; man-machine systems; mobile robots
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6703 (URN)10.1109/TSMCC.2004.826281 (DOI)000221046300003 ()2-s2.0-2442533012 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100616Available from: 2006-12-29 Created: 2006-12-29 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
2. Fetch-an-carry with CERO: observations from a long-term user study with a service robot
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fetch-an-carry with CERO: observations from a long-term user study with a service robot
2002 (English)In: 11th IEEE International Workshop on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, 2002, 158-163 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6704 (URN)
Conference
11th IEEE International Workshop on Robot and Human Interactive Communication
Note
QC 20100616Available from: 2006-12-29 Created: 2006-12-29 Last updated: 2010-06-16Bibliographically approved
3. To help or not to help a service robot
Open this publication in new window or tab >>To help or not to help a service robot
2006 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper reports an experimental study in which people who had never encountered our service robot before were requested to assist it with a task. We call these visiting users "bystanders" to differentiate them from people who belong to the social setting and group in which the robot is operated in and thus are familiar with the robot. In our study 32 subjects were exposed to our robot and requested by it to provide a cup of coffee as part of a delivery mission. We anticipated that people in general would help the robot, dependent upon whether they were busy or had received a demonstration of the robot as introduction. Our results indicate that the willingness of bystanders to help a robot not only is a consequence of the robot initiated interaction, but equally depends on the situation and state of occupation people are in when requested to interact with and assist the robot.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2006
Series
IPLab, 217
Keyword
Socially interactive robots, collaborative control
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6705 (URN)
Note
QC 20100616Available from: 2006-12-29 Created: 2006-12-29 Last updated: 2010-07-16Bibliographically approved
4. Report on user study on the role of posture and postioning in HRI
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Report on user study on the role of posture and postioning in HRI
2006 (English)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2006
Series
IPLab, 253
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6706 (URN)
Note
QC 20100616Available from: 2006-12-29 Created: 2006-12-29 Last updated: 2010-06-16Bibliographically approved
5. Investigating spatial relationships in human-robot interaction
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigating spatial relationships in human-robot interaction
2006 (English)In: IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, NEW YORK, NY: IEEE , 2006, 5052-5059 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Co-presence and embodied interaction are two fundamental characteristics of the command and control situation for service robots. This paper presents a study of spatial distances and orientation of a robot with respect to a human user in an experimental setting. Relevant concepts of spatiality from social interaction studies are introduced and related to Human-Robot Interaction (HRI). A Wizard-of-Oz study quantifies the observed spatial distances and spatial formations encountered. However, it is claimed that a simplistic parameterization and measurement of spatial interaction misses the dynamic character and might be counterproductive in the design of socially appropriate robots.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
NEW YORK, NY: IEEE, 2006
Keyword
spatiality in human-robot interaction
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6707 (URN)10.1109/IROS.2006.282535 (DOI)000245452405021 ()2-s2.0-34250632870 (Scopus ID)978-1-4244-0258-8 (ISBN)
Conference
International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems
Note
QC 20100617 QC 20111005Available from: 2006-12-29 Created: 2006-12-29 Last updated: 2011-10-05Bibliographically approved
6. What's in the gap?: Interaction Transitions that make the HRI work
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What's in the gap?: Interaction Transitions that make the HRI work
Show others...
2006 (English)In: Proceedings of the 15th IEEE international symposium on robot and human interactive communication, 2006Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents an in-depth analysis from a Human Robot Interaction (HRI) study on spatial positioning and interaction episode transitions. Subjects showed a living room to a robot to teach it new places and objects. This joint task was analyzed with respect to organizing strategies for interaction episodes. Noticing the importance of transitions between interaction episodes, small adaptive movements in posturewere observed. This finding needs to be incorporated into HRI modules that plan and execute robots’ spatial behavior in interaction, e.g., through dynamic adaptation of spatial formations and distances depending on interaction episode.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-13388 (URN)10.1109/ROMAN.2006.314405 (DOI)2-s2.0-48349138391 (Scopus ID)
Conference
the 15th IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN 2006)
Note
QC 20100616Available from: 2010-06-17 Created: 2010-06-17 Last updated: 2012-03-23Bibliographically approved

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