Potential electrolytes for dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical solar cells have been synthesized and their applicability has been investigated. Different experimental techniques were used in order to characterize the synthesized electrolytes, such as elemental analysis, electrospray ionisation/mass spectrometry, cyclic voltammetry, dynamic viscosity measurements, as well as impedance, Raman and NMR spectroscopy. Some crystal structures were characterized by using single crystal X-ray diffraction.
In order to verify the eligibility of the ionic compounds as electrolytes for photoelectrochemical solar cells, photocurrent density/photovoltage and incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency measurements were performed, using different kinds of light sources as solar simulators. In electron kinetic studies, the electron transport times in the solar cells were investigated by using intensitymodulated photocurrent and photovoltage spectroscopy. The accumulated charge present in the semiconductor was studied in photocurrent transient measurements.
The ionic liquids were successfully used as solar cell electrolytes, especially those originating from the diethyl and dibutyl-alkylsulphonium iodides. The highest overall conversion efficiency of almost 4 % was achieved by a dye-sensitized, nanocrystalline solar cell using (Bu2MeS)I:I2 (100:1) as electrolyte (Air Mass 1.5 spectrum at 100 W m-2), quite compatible with the standard efficiencies provided by organic solvent-containing cells. Several solar cells with iodine-doped metal-iodidebased electrolytes reached stable efficiencies over 2 %. The (Bu2MeS)I:I2-containing cells showed better long-term stabilities than the organic solvent-based cells, and provided the fastest electron transports as well as the highest charge accumulation.
Several polypyridyl-ruthenium complexes were tested as solar cell sensitizers. No general improvements could be observed according to the addition of amphiphilic co-adsorbents to the dyes or nanopartices of titanium dioxide to the electrolytes. For ionic liquid-containing solar cells, a saturation phenomena in the short-circuit current densities emerged at increased light intensities, probably due to inherent material transport limitation within the systems.
Some iodoargentates and -cuprates were structurally characterized, consisting of monomeric or polymeric entities with anionic networks or layers. A system of metal iodide crownether complexes were employed and tested as electrolytes in photoelectrochemical solar cells, though with poorer results. Also, the crystal structure of a copper-iodide-(12-crown-4) complex has been characterized
Stockholm: KTH , 2005. , xii, 121 p.
Kloo, Lars A.