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Source efficiency as function of fuel and coolant in accelerator-driven systems
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Reactor Physics.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Reactor Physics.
2006 (English)In: Annals of Nuclear Energy, ISSN 0306-4549, E-ISSN 1873-2100, Vol. 33, no 9, 829-832 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We have studied the efficiency of spallation neutron sources for different combinations of coolant and fuel in 80 MWth, sub-critical, cores. It has been found that the proton source efficiency, psi*, is reduced by 10% when switching coolant from helium to lead-bismuth eutectic. Substituting MOX fuel with an americium based fuel, results in another 10% reduction of psi*. The relatively high source efficiencies found for prototype accelerator-driven systems, using standard MOX fuel and helium coolant, may thus be difficult to achieve in future systems dedicated to the transmutation of higher actinides. Our results are in agreement with previous investigations of the dependence of the source efficiency on the selection of coolant.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 33, no 9, 829-832 p.
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6750DOI: 10.1016/j.anucene.2006.03.007ISI: 000239532900010Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-33745584785OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-6750DiVA: diva2:11548
Note
Tidigare titel: Source efficiency studies in gas- and leadbismuth- cooled sub-critical accelerator-driven cores. Uppdaterad från submitted till published: 20101005. QC 20101005Available from: 2005-09-22 Created: 2005-09-22 Last updated: 2011-10-03Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Source efficiency and high-energy neutronics in accelerator-driven systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Source efficiency and high-energy neutronics in accelerator-driven systems
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Transmutation of plutonium and minor actinides in accelerator-driven systems (ADS) is being envisaged for the purpose of reducing the long-term radiotoxic inventory of spent nuclear reactor fuel. For this reason, the physics of sub-critical systems are being studied in several different experimental programs across the world. Three of these experiments have been studied within the scope of the present thesis; the MUSE experiments in France, the Yalina experiments in Belarus and the SAD experiments in Russia. The investigations of the MUSE experiments have focused on three different neutronic parameters; the neutron energy spectrum, the external neutron source efficiency and the dynamic neutron source response. It has been shown that the choice of external neutron source has negligible effect on the neutron energy spectrum in the core. Therefore, from this point of view, the MUSE experiments can be considered representative of an ADS. From the analyses of different reactivity determination methods in the Yalina experiments, it can be concluded that the slope fit method gives results in good agreement with the results obtained by the Monte Carlo method MCNP. Moreover, it was found that the Sjöstrand method underestimates keff slightly, in comparison with MCNP and the other investigated methods. In the radiation shielding studies of the SAD experiments, it was shown that the entire part of the effective dose detected at the top of the biological shielding originates from the proton-induced spallation reactions in the target. Thus, it can be concluded that the effective dose is directly proportional to the proton beam power, but independent of the reactivity of the sub-critical core. In order to study the energy gain of an ADS, i.e., the core power divided by the proton beam power, the proton source efficiency, ψ*, has been studied for various ADS models. ψ* is defined in analogy with the neutron source efficiency, φ*, but relates the core power directly to the source protons instead of to the source neutrons. φ* is commonly used in the physics of sub-critical systems, driven by any external neutron source (spallation source, (D,D), (D,T), 252Cf spontaneous fission etc.). On the contrary, ψ* has been defined only for ADS studies, where the system is driven by a proton-induced spallation source. The main advantages of using ψ* instead of φ* are that the way of defining the external source is unique and that ψ* is proportional to the energy gain. An important part of this thesis has been devoted to studies of ψ* as a function of different system parameters, thereby providing a basis for an ADS design with optimal properties for obtaining a high core power over beam power ratio. For instance, ψ* was found to decrease considerably with increasing spallation target radius.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2005. xiv, 136 p.
Series
Trita-FYS, ISSN 0280-316X ; 2005:46
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-427 (URN)91-7178-147-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2005-09-30, Sal FA32, AlvaNova, Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101005Available from: 2005-09-22 Created: 2005-09-22 Last updated: 2010-10-05Bibliographically approved
2. Transmutation of nuclear waste in gas-cooled sub-critical reactors
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Transmutation of nuclear waste in gas-cooled sub-critical reactors
2005 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2005. viii, 74 p.
Series
Trita-FYS, ISSN 0280-316X ; 2005:60
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-578 (URN)91-7178-196-X (ISBN)
Presentation
2005-11-25, FA32, AlbaNova Universitetscentrum, Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm, 14:00
Supervisors
Note
QC 20110114Available from: 2005-12-28 Created: 2005-12-28 Last updated: 2011-01-14Bibliographically approved
3. Why Faster is Better: On Minor Actinide Transmutation in Hard Neutron
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Why Faster is Better: On Minor Actinide Transmutation in Hard Neutron
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

In this thesis, options for efficient transmutation of transuranium elements are discussed. The focus is on plutonium, americium and curium mainly because of their long-term contribution to the radiotoxicity of spent nuclear fuel. Two innovative helium-cooled core designs are proposed, dedicated to the transmutation of actinides. The performance of the more promising of the two is studied in realistic transient fuel cycle scenarios. During the 1150 day irradiation cycle, a minor actinide consumption of 355 kg/GWth·year is achieved. An analysis of the efficiency of spallation neutron sources in helium-cooled cores is also performed. It is shown that the proton source efficiency, ψ∗, is improved by about 10% when helium is used as coolant, rather than lead-bismuth eutectic. Further, a proposal is made to transmute actinides in the upper part of a BWR core. A net consumption of transuranics is shown possible in the BWR park already when 50% of the BWR fuel is of the proposed evolutionary type.

The thesis concludes that efficient transmutation of transuranic elements in dedicated helium-cooled subcritical cores is possible. But, in many instances fuel cycles without dedicated cores may lead to comparable final states. Especially, the evolutionary BWRfuel proposed seems interesting.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2007. x, 86 p.
Series
Trita-FYS, ISSN 0280-316X ; 2007:05
Keyword
nuclear physics, nuclear engineering
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4280 (URN)978-91-7178-567-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2007-02-23, F3, KTH, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 14:15
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100820Available from: 2007-02-19 Created: 2007-02-19 Last updated: 2011-10-03Bibliographically approved

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