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Stability of an electric vehicle with permanent magnet in-wheel motors during electrical faults
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6283-7661
2007 (English)In: World Electric Vehicle Journal, ISSN 2032-6653, E-ISSN 2032-6653, Vol. 1, 100-107 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents an analysis of the stability of an electric vehicle equipped with in-wheel motors of permanent-magnet type during a class of electrical faults. Due to the constant excitation from the permanent magnets, the output torque from a faulted wheel cannot easily be removed if an inverter shuts down, which directly affects the vehicle stability. In this paper, the impact of an electrical fault during two driving scenarios is investigated by simulations; using parameters from a 30 kW in-wheel motor and experimentally obtained tire data. It is shown that the electrical fault risks to seriously degrading the vehicle stability if the correct counteraction is not taken quickly. However, it is also demonstrated that vehicle stability during an electrical fault can be maintained with only minor lateral displacements when a closed-loop path controller and a simple method to allocate the individual tire forces are used. This inherent capacity to handle an important class of electrical faults is attractive; especially since no additional fault-handling strategy or hardware is needed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2007. Vol. 1, 100-107 p.
Keyword [en]
control system, electrical failure, inverter, in-wheel motor
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6770Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-70849121041OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-6770DiVA: diva2:11574
Note

QC 20100721

Available from: 2007-02-14 Created: 2007-02-14 Last updated: 2016-12-09Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Aspects of autonomous corner modules as an enabler for new vehicle chassis solutions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aspects of autonomous corner modules as an enabler for new vehicle chassis solutions
2006 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

This thesis adopts a novel approach to propelling and controlling the dynamics of a vehicle by using autonomous corner modules (ACM). This configuration is characterised by vehicle controlled functions and distributed actuation and offers active and individual control of steering, camber, propulsion/braking and vertical load.

Algorithms which control vehicles with ACMs from a state-space trajectory description are reviewed and further developed. This principle involves force allocation, where forces to each tyre are distributed within their limitations. One force allocation procedure proposed and used is based on a constrained, linear, least-square optimisation, where cost functions are used to favour solutions directed to specific attributes.

The ACM configuration reduces tyre force constraints, due to lessen estrictions in wheel kinematics compared to conventional vehicles. Thus, the tyres can generate forces considerably differently, which in turn, enables a new motion pattern. This is used to control vehicle slip and vehicle yaw independently. The ACM shows one important potential; the extraordinary ability to ensure vehicle stability. This is feasible firstly due to closed-loop control of a large number of available actuators and secondly due to better use of adhesion potential. The ability to ensure vehicle stability was demonstrated by creating actuator faults.

This thesis also offers an insight in ACM actuators and their interaction, as a result of the force allocation procedure.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2006. viii, 22 p.
Series
Trita-AVE, ISSN 1651-7660 ; 2006:101
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4275 (URN)978-91-7178-559-6 (ISBN)
Presentation
2007-02-22, Sal D41, KTH, Lindstedtsvägen 17, Stockholm, 13:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101117Available from: 2007-02-14 Created: 2007-02-14 Last updated: 2010-11-17Bibliographically approved
2. Exploiting individual wheel actuators to enhance vehicle dynamics and safety in electric vehicles
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploiting individual wheel actuators to enhance vehicle dynamics and safety in electric vehicles
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis is focused on individual wheel actuators in road vehicles intended for vehicle motion control. Particular attention is paid to electro-mechanical actuators and how they can contribute to improving vehicle dynamics and safety. The employment of individual wheel actuators at the vehicle's four corner results in a large degree of over-actuation. Over-actuation has a potential of exploiting the vehicle's force constraints at a high level and of controlling the vehicle more freely. One important reason for using over-actuated vehicles is their capability to assist the driver to experience the vehicle as desired. This thesis demonstrates that critical situations close to the limits can be handled more efficiently by over-actuation.

To maximise the vehicle performance, all the available actuators are systematically exploited within their force constraints.  Therefore, force constraints for the individually controlled wheel are formulated, along with important restrictions that follow as soon as a reduction in the degrees of freedom of the wheel occurs. Particular focus is directed at non-convex force constraints arising from combined tyre slip characteristics.

To evaluate the differently actuated vehicles, constrained control allocation is employed to control the vehicle. The allocation problem is formulated as an optimisation problem, which is solved by non-linear programming.

To emulate realistic safety critical scenarios, highly over-actuated vehicles are controlled and evaluated by the use of a driver model and a validated complex strongly non-linear vehicle model.

it is shown that, owing to the actuator redundancy, over-actuated vehicles possess an inherent capacity to handle actuator faults, with less need for extra hardware or case-specific fault-handling strategies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2009. x, 84 p.
Series
Trita-AVE, ISSN 1651-7660 ; 2009:33
Keyword
autonomous wheel corner, actuators, vehicle dynamics, control allocation, electric vehicles, vehicle modelling
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-11005 (URN)978-91-7415-387-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-09-25, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100722Available from: 2009-09-08 Created: 2009-09-03 Last updated: 2010-07-22Bibliographically approved

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