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Neutronic and Safety Aspects of a Gas-Cooled Subcritical Core for Minor Actinide Transmutation
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Reactor Physics.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Reactor Physics.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6082-8913
2005 (English)In: Nuclear Technology, ISSN 0029-5450, E-ISSN 1943-7471, Vol. 154, no 1, 41-51 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We have designed a gas-cooled accelerator-driven system dedicated to transmutation of minor actinides. Thanks to the excellent neutron economy of the uranium-free fuel employed, the pin pitch to diameter ratio (P/D) could be increased to 1.8. The increased coolant fraction allows for decay heat removal at ambient pressure. The large coolant fraction further results in a low, pressure loss-26 kPa over the core, 35 kPa in. total. Thanks to the large P/D, the elevation of the heat exchanger necessary to remove decay heat by natural circulation is just more than I m. The absence of uranium in conjunction. with the presence of 35% (heavy atom) americium in the fuel results in a low effective delayed neutron fraction and a vanishing Doppler feedback, making subcritical operation mandatory.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2005. Vol. 154, no 1, 41-51 p.
Keyword [en]
Accelerator-driven systems; Helium cooling; Minor actinide fuel; Actinides; Cooling; Heat exchangers; Monte Carlo methods; Nuclear reactors; Plutonium; Uranium; Actinide transmutation; Doppler feedback; Gas-cooled accelerator-driven system; Nuclear fuels
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6790ISI: 000236616200003Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-33645918000OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-6790DiVA: diva2:11600
Note

QC 20141127

Available from: 2007-02-19 Created: 2007-02-19 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Why Faster is Better: On Minor Actinide Transmutation in Hard Neutron
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Why Faster is Better: On Minor Actinide Transmutation in Hard Neutron
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

In this thesis, options for efficient transmutation of transuranium elements are discussed. The focus is on plutonium, americium and curium mainly because of their long-term contribution to the radiotoxicity of spent nuclear fuel. Two innovative helium-cooled core designs are proposed, dedicated to the transmutation of actinides. The performance of the more promising of the two is studied in realistic transient fuel cycle scenarios. During the 1150 day irradiation cycle, a minor actinide consumption of 355 kg/GWth·year is achieved. An analysis of the efficiency of spallation neutron sources in helium-cooled cores is also performed. It is shown that the proton source efficiency, ψ∗, is improved by about 10% when helium is used as coolant, rather than lead-bismuth eutectic. Further, a proposal is made to transmute actinides in the upper part of a BWR core. A net consumption of transuranics is shown possible in the BWR park already when 50% of the BWR fuel is of the proposed evolutionary type.

The thesis concludes that efficient transmutation of transuranic elements in dedicated helium-cooled subcritical cores is possible. But, in many instances fuel cycles without dedicated cores may lead to comparable final states. Especially, the evolutionary BWRfuel proposed seems interesting.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2007. x, 86 p.
Series
Trita-FYS, ISSN 0280-316X ; 2007:05
Keyword
nuclear physics, nuclear engineering
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4280 (URN)978-91-7178-567-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2007-02-23, F3, KTH, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 14:15
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100820Available from: 2007-02-19 Created: 2007-02-19 Last updated: 2011-10-03Bibliographically approved
2. Transmutation of nuclear waste in gas-cooled sub-critical reactors
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Transmutation of nuclear waste in gas-cooled sub-critical reactors
2005 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2005. viii, 74 p.
Series
Trita-FYS, ISSN 0280-316X ; 2005:60
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-578 (URN)91-7178-196-X (ISBN)
Presentation
2005-11-25, FA32, AlbaNova Universitetscentrum, Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm, 14:00
Supervisors
Note
QC 20110114Available from: 2005-12-28 Created: 2005-12-28 Last updated: 2011-01-14Bibliographically approved

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