Change search
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Hafnium clad fuels for fast spectrum BWRs
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Reactor Physics.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6082-8913
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Reactor Physics.
2008 (English)In: Annals of Nuclear Energy, ISSN 0306-4549, E-ISSN 1873-2100, Vol. 35, no 1, 60-67 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We show that by use of hafnium cladding, a fast neutron spectrum is achievable in the top of uprated BWRs. Monte Carlo calculations have been made for Hf clad inert matrix nitride and low fertile MOX fuels, with fuel segments located in the upper part of an uprated BWR, where the coolant void fraction exceeds 70%. The nitride fuel results in the hardest neutron spectrum, but the low fertile MOX fuel still yields fission probabilities for even neutron number nuclides similar to those of sodium cooled reactors. The inert matrix nitride fuel configuration yields high burning rates, permitting to stabilise TRU inventories with less than 50% BWR cores of the here suggested type in the power park. The core with low fertile MOX fuel is less efficient, but still a zero net producer of TRU. Fuel and coolant temperature feedbacks are affected by introduction of absorbing elements in the fuel, but remain within acceptable ranges for the low fertile MOX fuel. Although control rod worths are reduced, shutdown margins are sufficient to ensure sub-criticality in cold conditions. From a materials point of view, the behaviour of hafnium clad MOX fuel would be similar to zircalloy clad MOX fuel already used extensively in nuclear industry. Thus, if dynamic stability of the core can be ensured, the here proposed fuel may be considered as a low cost solution for transmutation of minor actinides on industrial scale.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. Vol. 35, no 1, 60-67 p.
Keyword [en]
Cladding (coating); Coolants; Hafnium; Monte Carlo methods; Void fraction; Clad fuels; Fission probabilities; Low fertile MOX fuels; Sodium cooled reactors; Boiling water reactors
National Category
Energy Engineering
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6794DOI: 10.1016/j.anucene.2007.05.006ISI: 000252911000006ScopusID: 2-s2.0-36148992195OAI: diva2:11604

QC 20100823. Uppdaterad från Submitted till Published 20100823.

Available from: 2007-02-19 Created: 2007-02-19 Last updated: 2016-04-19Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Why Faster is Better: On Minor Actinide Transmutation in Hard Neutron
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Why Faster is Better: On Minor Actinide Transmutation in Hard Neutron
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

In this thesis, options for efficient transmutation of transuranium elements are discussed. The focus is on plutonium, americium and curium mainly because of their long-term contribution to the radiotoxicity of spent nuclear fuel. Two innovative helium-cooled core designs are proposed, dedicated to the transmutation of actinides. The performance of the more promising of the two is studied in realistic transient fuel cycle scenarios. During the 1150 day irradiation cycle, a minor actinide consumption of 355 kg/GWth·year is achieved. An analysis of the efficiency of spallation neutron sources in helium-cooled cores is also performed. It is shown that the proton source efficiency, ψ∗, is improved by about 10% when helium is used as coolant, rather than lead-bismuth eutectic. Further, a proposal is made to transmute actinides in the upper part of a BWR core. A net consumption of transuranics is shown possible in the BWR park already when 50% of the BWR fuel is of the proposed evolutionary type.

The thesis concludes that efficient transmutation of transuranic elements in dedicated helium-cooled subcritical cores is possible. But, in many instances fuel cycles without dedicated cores may lead to comparable final states. Especially, the evolutionary BWRfuel proposed seems interesting.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2007. x, 86 p.
Trita-FYS, ISSN 0280-316X ; 2007:05
nuclear physics, nuclear engineering
National Category
Physical Sciences
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4280 (URN)978-91-7178-567-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2007-02-23, F3, KTH, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 14:15
QC 20100820Available from: 2007-02-19 Created: 2007-02-19 Last updated: 2011-10-03Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full textScopusScienceDirect

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Wallenius, JanneWestlén, Daniel
By organisation
Reactor Physics
In the same journal
Annals of Nuclear Energy
Energy Engineering

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Altmetric score

Total: 59 hits
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link