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Access selection in multi-system architectures: cooperative and competitive contexts
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture, Communication Systems, CoS.
2007 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Future wireless networks will be composed of multiple radio access technologies (RATs). To benefit from these, users must utilize the appropriate RAT, and access points (APs). In this thesis we evaluate the efficiency of selection criteria that, in addition to path-loss and system bandwidth, also consider load. The problem is studied for closed as well as open systems. In the former both terminals and infrastructure are controlled by a single actor (e.g., mobile operator), while the latter refers to situations where terminals, selfishly, decide which AP it wants to use (as in a common market-place). We divide the overall problem into the prioritization between available RATs and, within a RAT, between the APs. The results from our studies suggest that data users, in general, should be served by the RAT offering highest peak data rate.

As this can be estimated by terminals, the benefits from centralized RAT selection is limited. Within a subsystem, however, load-sensitive AP selection criteria can increase data-rates. Highest gains are obtained when the subsystem is noise-limited, deployment unplanned, and the relative difference in number of users per AP significant. Under these circumstances the maximum supported load can be increased by an order of magnitude. However, also decentralized AP selection, where greedy autonomous terminal-based agents are in charge of the selection, were shown to give these gains as long they accounted for load. We also developed a game-theoretic framework, where users competed for wireless resources by bidding in a proportionally fair divisible auction. The framework was applied to a scenario where revenue-seeking APs competed for traffic by selecting an appropriate price. Compared to when APs cooperated, modelled by the Nash bargaining solution, our results suggest that a competitive access market, where infrastructure is shared implicitly, generally, offers users better service at a lower cost. Although AP revenues reduce, this reduction is, relatively, small and were shown to decrease with the concavity of demand. Lastly we studied whether data services could be offered in a discontinuous high-capacity network by letting a terminal-based agent pre-fetch information that its user potentially may request at some future time-instant. This decouples the period where the information is transferred, from the time-instant when it is consumed. Our results show that above some critical AP density, considerably lower than that required for continuous coverage, services start to perform well.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2007. , xv, 180 p.
Series
Trita-ICT-COS, ISSN 1653-6347 ; 0701
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4286OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-4286DiVA: diva2:11634
Presentation
2007-03-09, Sal NA2, KTH-Electrum, Isafjordsgatan 28 b v, Kista, 14:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101109Available from: 2007-02-27 Created: 2007-02-27 Last updated: 2010-11-09Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Business models and resource management for shared wireless networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Business models and resource management for shared wireless networks
2004 (English)In: VTC2004-FALL: 2004 IEEE 60TH VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE, VOLS 1-7 - WIRELESS TECHNOLOGIES FOR GLOBAL SECURITY, NEW YORK: IEEE , 2004, 3393-3397 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper we analyze main use cases for sharing wireless access networks between multiple operators and service providers. Network sharing has been proposed as a metho l to lower roll-out costs for 3G operators in Europe, and is widely used in WLAN systems where local access providers offer wireless access to service providers. A similar structure also exist in cellular networks where Mobile Virtual Network Operators (MVNO) provide mobile services without having a mobile network of their own. The development points at a further fragmentation of wireless access networks into specialized service providers that connect to local service and access providers, possibly via an inter-connection provider serving with core network functionality. In this context, we propose a framework for how radio resources could be managed using Service Level Agreements (SLA) and analyze key differences between the SLA for different types of service and network providers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
NEW YORK: IEEE, 2004
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-25996 (URN)10.1109/VETECF.2004.1404693 (DOI)000227931904070 ()2-s2.0-17144431913 (Scopus ID)0-7803-8521-7 (ISBN)
Conference
60th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference Los Angeles, CA, SEP 26-29, 2004
Note
QC 20101108Available from: 2010-11-08 Created: 2010-11-08 Last updated: 2012-03-23Bibliographically approved
2. Performance analysis of non-cosited evolved 2G and 3G multi-access systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance analysis of non-cosited evolved 2G and 3G multi-access systems
2006 (English)In: IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, PIMRC, Helsinki, 2006Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

An efficient combination of radio access technologies, integrated in a multi-access network, will be a key enabler in future provisioning of mobile data services. This paper addresses a scenario where an incumbent mobile network operator, with an existing 2G and 3G infrastructure, has deployed a dense WCDMA/HSPA macro-cell network in an urban area. With this high capacity network deployed, upgrading previous 2G and 3G systems with EDGE and HSPA respectively may seem obsolete. However, even though these systems may not support the intended data rates alone, they could, thanks to favorable propagation characteristics and the additional spectrum available, be useful as complements. Simulation results indicate that upgrading GPRS base stations with EDGE, or a sparse WCDMA macro cell layer with HSPA, mainly would benefit uplink transmission. For this case, the data rate that can be guaranteed with 95 % area availability (coverage) can be increased with approximately 40-100 %. In the downlink, though, the dense WCDMA/HSPA system alone supports user data rates of 500 kpbs for all relevant user densities. Thus, upgrading legacy infrastructure would be obsolete.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Helsinki: , 2006
Keyword
Cellular radio systems, Computer networks, Macros, Metropolitan area networks, Mobile radio systems, Network protocols, Radio systems, Regional planning, Technology, Telecommunication systems, Data rates, Downlink (DL), High capacity (Transmission Data Rate), International symposium, Macro cells, Mobile data services, Mobile networks, Mobile radio communications, Multi access networks, Multi access systems, paper addresses, performance analyses, propagation characteristics, Radio Access Technologies (RAT), simulation results, Third generation (3G) systems, Up link transmissions, Urban areas, User data, Wireless networks
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-25997 (URN)10.1109/PIMRC.2006.254249 (DOI)2-s2.0-44949175770 (Scopus ID)9781424403295 (ISBN)
Conference
2006 IEEE 17th International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, PIMRC; Helsinki; 11 September 2006 through 14 September 2006
Projects
SRA - Informations- och kommunikationsteknik
Note
QC 20101108Available from: 2010-11-08 Created: 2010-11-08 Last updated: 2011-10-19Bibliographically approved
3. Access selection in partially Backhaul-limited multi-operator IEEE 802.11 networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Access selection in partially Backhaul-limited multi-operator IEEE 802.11 networks
2006 (English)In: IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, PIMRC, Helsinki, 2006Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Radio resource management (RRM) across multiple, potentially competing, wireless networks has emerged as a salient feature for future generation system. Besides increased overhead, it will incur more complicated architectures and the question then becomes whether the gains of cooperative RRM (increased throughput, reliability, etc.) can justify these disadvantages. Herein we study potential gains that can be achieved by utilizing sophisticated algorithms in a scenario with two cooperating IEEE 802.11a networks, limited by either the wireless or wired link. Both best-effort (BE) and minimum bitrate (MBR) are treated and throughout the paper we use the rudimentary minimum path-loss (MPL) allocation as reference. Our results indicate that sophisticated access selection methods that besides path-loss, also account for AP load and potential constraints in the wired connection, can increase performance significantly. The maximum gain varies between 30-60% and 100-150% for BE and MBR traffic respectively and is typically obtained when there, on average, is one user per AP. We also studied the case where APs with constrained wired capacity connected (using the MPL criteria) to high-capacity APs in order to reroute traffic. Contrary to the approach in which advanced allocation principles is used, "loose" network integration is sufficient and even though it gave lower gains for BE data, the achievable rates for MBR data could be improved substantially.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Helsinki: , 2006
Keyword
Computer networks, Information management, Integer programming, Knowledge management, Management, Metropolitan area networks, Network architecture, Network protocols, Resource allocation, Standards, Wireless telecommunication systems, (U, V) operator, access selection, Achievable rates, Best-effort (BE), High capacity (Transmission Data Rate), IEEE 802.11 networks, IEEE 802.11a networks, In order, International symposium, maximum gain, Mobile radio communications, Network integration, Path loss (PL), Potential constraints, Radio resource management (RRM), Salient features, Wired connection, Wireless networks
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-25999 (URN)10.1109/PIMRC.2006.254289 (DOI)2-s2.0-44949265165 (Scopus ID)1424403294; 9781424403295 (ISBN)
Note
QC 20101108Available from: 2010-11-08 Created: 2010-11-08 Last updated: 2010-11-09Bibliographically approved
4. On Selfish Distributed Access Selection Algorithms in IEEE 802.11 Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On Selfish Distributed Access Selection Algorithms in IEEE 802.11 Networks
2006 (English)In: IEEE VTS VEH TECHNOL CONF, 2006, 1097-1102 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

An important question for future wireless networks is whether the prioritization between different accesses should be controlled by the networks or terminals. Herein we evaluate the performance of distributed access-selection algorithms where terminals are responsible for both AP selection and the necessary measurements. In particular, we focus on determining whether selfish distributed algorithms call perform as well as centralized ones (for comparison we include max-sum, max-min, proportional fair and minimum delay allocations). The study is conducted by time-dynamic simulations in a IEEE 802.11a network and its performance measures we use file transfer delay and supportable load at a maximum tolerable delay. Our results show that selfish algorithms can offer similar performance. both in terms of throughput and fairness, as the centralized schemes as long as they account for both path-loss and access point load. This is an important result and it suggests that terminal-controlled algorithms are Just as efficient as centralized schemes, which besides extensive measurements also require that AP exchange information, for improving the efficiency in WLAN networks. Compared with a minimum path-loss selection criteria, which is standard in the IEEE 802.11 family today, our distributed load-aware algorithm increases the maximum supportable load with more than 200 percent even after accounting for measurement time and estimation errors. With fast reselection during ongoing sessions the gains call be further increased with, typically, 20 percent.

Series
IEEE VTS Vehicular Technology Conference Proceedings, ISSN 1090-3038
Keyword
Algorithms, Delay circuits, Distributed computer systems, Error analysis, Information retrieval systems, Motion planning
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-26000 (URN)10.1109/VTCF.2006.236 (DOI)000260569400222 ()2-s2.0-34548861524 (Scopus ID)978-1-4244-0062-1 (ISBN)
Conference
64th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference Montreal, CANADA, SEP 25-28, 2006
Note
QC 20101108Available from: 2010-11-08 Created: 2010-11-08 Last updated: 2011-10-10Bibliographically approved
5. Decentralized market-based radio resource management in multi-network environments
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Decentralized market-based radio resource management in multi-network environments
2007 (English)In: IEEE VTS VEH TECHNOL CONF, 2007, 2884-2889 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

For voice, an efficient radio resource management (RRM) essentially boils down to providing a predefined signal to interference ratio (SIR) at lowest cost possible and centralized schemes has, evidently, been an effective approach to address these problems. Delay-elastic data services, however, introduce both heterogeneous user requirements and possibilities for opportunistic RRM. One way, among others,to handle this would be to let autonomous trade-agents, acting on behalf of users, manage the radio resources, and this is our point of departure. We propose a market-based framework for decentralized RRM in environments populated by multiple, possibly heterogeneous, "access points" (APs), and the provided service for the users consists of file transfers. Resources (transmission time) are partitioned between users through a proportionally fair divisible auction. The problem at hand for the user (trade-agent), is then to determine how much resources it should purchase from the different APs in order to maximize its utility ("value for money"). Our results indicate that decentralized selfish bidding strategies are able to capitalize on temporary beneficial conditions and offer comparable performance with a centralized scheme (based on the 'mu C-rule') that requires knowledge about peak data-rates, queue lengths, and preferences for all users in the system.

Series
IEEE VTS Vehicular Technology Conference Proceedings, ISSN 1550-2252
Keyword
delays, radio networks, telecommunication network management, voice communication
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-26001 (URN)10.1109/VETECS.2007.592 (DOI)000252237601264 ()2-s2.0-34547240095 (Scopus ID)978-1-4244-0265-6 (ISBN)
Conference
65th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference Dublin, IRELAND, APR 22-25, 2007
Note
QC 20101109Available from: 2010-11-09 Created: 2010-11-09 Last updated: 2010-11-09Bibliographically approved
6. Demand-responsive pricing in open wireless access markets
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Demand-responsive pricing in open wireless access markets
2007 (English)In: IEEE VTS VEH TECHNOL CONF, 2007, 2990-2995 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Radio resource management (RRM) across operator boundaries is emerging as a salient feature for wireless systems beyond 3G. Until recently, research has been confined to solutions where cooperating networks enter explicit sharing agreements that define how responsibilities and revenues should be divided. An alternative would be to share the infrastructure implicitly by establishing an open wireless access market wherein networks not only compete for users on a long-term time-scale, but also on a much shorter time-base. This could be realized with an architecture where autonomous trade-agents, that reside in terminals and access points (APs), manage the resources through negotiations. In this paper we develop a framework for studying demand-responsive pricing in contexts where APs with overlapping coverage compete for users. Resources are partitioned through a proportional fair divisible auction and our aim is to establish if, and when, an open market for wireless access can be se sustained. Compared to a scenario where APs cooperate, our results show that, an open access market results in better services at lower price which in the prolonging also yields more satisfied customers. As an effect demand will increase and, from the perspective of the APs, act as a counterbalance to the reduced prices. Thus, the revenue earned by the AN will be comparable to the one in which obtained through AP cooperation and monopoly (cartel) pricing. Generally speaking, the difference between the cooperative and noncooperative RRM is small when the demand is concave and increases with the convexity of demand.

Series
IEEE VTS Vehicular Technology Conference Proceedings, ISSN 1550-2252
Keyword
3G mobile communication, game theory, mobile radio, pricing, radio access networks, telecommunication network management
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-26003 (URN)10.1109/VETECS.2007.613 (DOI)000252237601285 ()2-s2.0-34547280973 (Scopus ID)978-1-4244-0265-6 (ISBN)
Conference
65th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference Dublin, IRELAND, APR 22-25, 2007
Note
QC 20101109Available from: 2010-11-09 Created: 2010-11-09 Last updated: 2010-11-09Bibliographically approved
7. Service Provisioning with Ad-Hoc Deployed High-Speed Access Points in Urban environments
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Service Provisioning with Ad-Hoc Deployed High-Speed Access Points in Urban environments
2005 (English)In: 2005 IEEE 16th International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, PIMRC 2005, IEEE conference proceedings, 2005, Vol. 3, 2019-2023 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

 Exploiting user-deployed networks as part of a public infrastructure has been proposed as a concept to radically lower the cost of provisioning access and services in urban environments. An important question is how dense a network with spotty coverage has to be in order to support interesting services. In this paper1, we introduce a framework for evaluating the user-perceived performance for two service types, a time-critical news subscription service (involving streaming) and a more delay tolerant entertainment service ("web browsing"). The user terminals contain a memory cache and an "agent" that opportunistically downloads and stores relevant pieces of information as users walk close to the access points. Results show that above a critical access point density, that is still significantly lower than the one required for continuous coverage, the services start performing very well with little or no outdated information. In most studied scenarios, we are communication limited meaning that memory capacity is not a problem, but energy is.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2005
Keyword
Cache memory, HIgh speed networks, Information retrieval systems, Telecommunication services
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7635 (URN)10.1109/PIMRC.2005.1651794 (DOI)2-s2.0-34047143732 (Scopus ID)978-3-8007-2909-8 (ISBN)
Conference
2005 IEEE 16th International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, PIMRC 2005
Note

QC 20100716

Available from: 2007-11-13 Created: 2007-11-13 Last updated: 2016-04-19Bibliographically approved

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