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Measurements and analysis of battery harmonic currents in a commercial hybrid vehicle
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9481-7366
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0108-1872
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6283-7661
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9203-9313
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2017 (English)In: 2017 IEEE Transportation and Electrification Conference and Expo, ITEC 2017, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2017, p. 45-50Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper, the harmonic content of the battery current in a commercial hybrid vehicle (bus) is measured and analyzed for a number of different driving situations. It is found that the most prominent harmonic reaches peak magnitudes that can be higher than 10% of the maximum dc-current level with a maximum frequency less than 150 Hz. Further, it is found that this harmonic can be approximated using a fitted, simple analytical expression with reasonable agreement for all driving situations considered.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2017. p. 45-50
Keyword [en]
DC-link, Harmonic currents, Hybrid vehicles, Lithium-ion batteries, Permanent-magnet synchronous machine, Ripple, Voltage source inverter, Commercial vehicles, Electric batteries, Electric inverters, Electric utilities, Harmonic analysis, Lithium compounds, Permanent magnets, Secondary batteries, Vehicles, DC links, Permanent magnet synchronous machines
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-216277DOI: 10.1109/ITEC.2017.7993245ISI: 000427121300009Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85028594346ISBN: 9781509039043 OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-216277DiVA, id: diva2:1165685
Conference
2017 IEEE Transportation and Electrification Conference and Expo, ITEC 2017, 22 June 2017 through 24 June 2017
Note

QC 20171213

Available from: 2017-12-13 Created: 2017-12-13 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Interactions between battery and power electronics in an electric vehicle drivetrain
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interactions between battery and power electronics in an electric vehicle drivetrain
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The electric machine and power electronics in electric and hybrid electric vehicles inevitably cause AC harmonics on the vehicle's DC-link. These harmonics can be partially filtered out by large capacitors, which today are overdimensioned in order to protect the vehicle's battery pack. This is done as a precaution, since it is not known whether ripple-current has any harmful effect on Li-ion  cells.

We have measured and analyzed the ripple-current present in a hybrid electric bus, and found that a majority of the power was carried by frequencies in the range 100~Hz to 1~kHz. The single most energetic harmonic in this particular vehicle is believed to have been caused  by a misaligned resolver in the motor.

We have also designed and built an advanced experimental set-up in order to study the effect of ripple-current on Li-ion cells in the lab. The set-up can cycle up to 16 cells simultaneously, with currents of up to 50~A including a superimposed AC signal with a frequency of up to 2~kHz. The cells' temperatures are controlled by means of a climate chamber. The set-up also includes a sophisticated safety system which automatically acts to prevent dangerous situations before they arise.

Using this set-up we tested whether superimposing AC with a specific frequency improves the charging performance of Li-ion cells. Statistical analysis found no improvement over regular DC cycling, and a physics-based model explains the experimental findings.

We have also investigated whether ripple-current accelerates the aging of Li-ion cells. Twelve cells were either calendar or cycle  aged for one year, with some cells being exposed to superimposed AC with a frequency of 1~Hz, 100~Hz, or 1~kHz. No effect was observed on any of capacity fade, power fade, or aging mechanism.

Finally we also tested whether it is possible to heat Li-ion cells from low temperatures using only AC. We propose a method for AC heating of Li-ion cells, and open the discussion for generalizing the technique to larger battery packs.

In conclusion, ripple-current has negligible effect on Li-ion cells, except for heating them slightly.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2018. p. 74
Series
TRITA-CBH-FOU ; 2018:27
National Category
Other Chemical Engineering
Research subject
Chemical Engineering; Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-228030 (URN)978-91-7729-837-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-06-15, E2, E-huset, huvudbyggnaden, våningsplan 3, Lindstedtsvägen 3, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Note

QC 20180518

Available from: 2018-05-18 Created: 2018-05-17 Last updated: 2018-05-18Bibliographically approved

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Soares, RúdiBessman, AlexanderWallmark, OskarLindbergh, Göran

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