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First x-ray nanoimaging experiments at NanoMAX
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4394-0591
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7569-9408
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2017 (English)In: X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods III 2017 / [ed] Lai, B Somogyi, A, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2017, Vol. 10389, article id 103890KConference paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

NanoMAX is a hard x-ray nanoimaging beamline at the new Swedish synchrotron radiation source MAX IV that became operational in 2016. Being a beamline dedicated to x-ray nanoimaging in both 2D and 3D, NanoMAX is the first to take full advantage of MAX IVs exceptional low emittance and resulting coherent properties. We present results from the first experiments at NanoMAX that took place in December 2016. These did not use the final experimental stations that will become available to users, but a temporary arrangement including zone plate and order-sorting aperture stages and a piezo-driven sample scanner. We used zone plates with outermost zone widths of 100 nm and 30 nm and performed experiments at 8 keV photon energy for x-ray absorption and fluorescence imaging and ptychography. Moreover, we investigated stability and coherence with a Ronchi test method. Despite the rather simple setup, we could demonstrate spatial resolution below 50 nm after only a few hours of beamtime. The results showed that the beamline is working as expected and experiments approaching the 10 nm resolution level or below should be possible in the future.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2017. Vol. 10389, article id 103890K
Series
Proceedings of SPIE, ISSN 0277-786X ; 10389
Keywords [en]
X-ray microscopy, x-ray nanoimaging, x-ray zone plates
National Category
Other Physics Topics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-220505DOI: 10.1117/12.2272960ISI: 000417335200006Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85034272848ISBN: 978-1-5106-1236-5 ISBN: 978-1-5106-1235-8 OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-220505DiVA, id: diva2:1169000
Conference
X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods III 2017, San Diego, United States, 7 August 2017 through 8 August 2017
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Note

QC 20171222

Available from: 2017-12-22 Created: 2017-12-22 Last updated: 2018-03-09Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. High-Aspect Ratio Nanofabrication for Hard X-Ray Zone Plates
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High-Aspect Ratio Nanofabrication for Hard X-Ray Zone Plates
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Hard x-ray nanoimaging enables structural investigations of new materials for many applications. For high-resolution experiments, zone plate x-ray optics are commonly chosen.Two methods of zone plate nanofabrication are presented in this thesis.

Zone plates are circular diffraction gratings with radially decreasing grating period. Their optical resolution depends on the width of the smallest zone, which nowadays can be around 10 nanometers. However, the efficiency of a zone plate depends on its thickness and its material. For hard x-rays, the optimal zone plate thickness is in the order of micrometers. Therefore, high aspect ratio nanofabrication processes are needed.Two such methods are investigated in this study.

First, an existing tungsten nanofabrication process based on reactive ion etching (RIE) was extended to 22:1 aspect ratio structures at 30~nm line width. The core improvement was a resist curing step that enhanced pattern transfer during RIE. Such a zone plate with 200 micrometer diameter and 2.2% efficiency was used in the commissioning experiment of NanoMAX, the nanoimaging beamline at the Swedish synchrotron facility MAX IV. Transmission imaging with 40 nm resolution, as well as the fluorescence imaging modality were demonstrated.

Second, metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) of silicon using gold catalyst patterns was investigated. MACE dependence on gold pattern geometry, etching solution composition, temperature, and substrate doping is described. The process is characterized in terms of etching rate, directionality, and nanostructure surface roughness.

Finally, the Ronchi test is presented as a way to quickly judge the performance of x-ray optics in terms of present aberrations and x-ray sources in terms of coherence.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm, Sweden: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2018. p. 64
Series
TRITA-SCI-FOU ; 2018:09
Keywords
nanofabrication, x-ray optics, zone plate, tungsten, silicon, reactive ion etching, metal-assisted chemical etching, Ronchi test
National Category
Physical Sciences
Research subject
Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-223958 (URN)978-91-7729-700-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-04-06, FB53, Albanova University Center, Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20180312

Available from: 2018-03-12 Created: 2018-03-09 Last updated: 2018-03-12Bibliographically approved

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Vogt, UlrichParfeniukas, Karolis

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