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Fast-charging to a partial state of charge in lithium-ion batteries: A comparative ageing study
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4901-5820
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9392-9059
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9203-9313
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN 2352-152X, Vol. 13, p. 325-333Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

At electric vehicle fast-charging stations, it is generally recommended to avoid charging beyond similar to 80% State-of-Charge (SOC) since topping-off to full capacity disproportionately increases the charging time. This necessitates studying its long-term impact compared to slower rate charging to full capacity typical of home or residential charging. Here we present the long-term ageing effects on commercial 18650 NMC-LMO/graphite cell cycled between 2.6-4.2 V at three different charging protocols: 1.5 C-rate fast-partial charging ( to 82.5% SOC), 0.5 C-rate slow standard charging without or with a constant-voltage step (to 93% or 100% SOC). Quantitative discharge-curve and postmortem analyses are used to evaluate ageing. The results show that ageing rate increases in the order: fast-partial charging < standard charging < standard charging with constant-voltage period, indicating that higher SOC-range near full capacity is more detrimental to battery life than fast-charging. The capacity fade is totally dominated by cyclable-lithium loss. The similar to 8% NMC-LMO active material loss has negligible impact on the cell capacity fade due to the electrodes excess material in the fresh cell and its moderate loss rate with ageing compared to the cyclable-lithium. Similar ageing modes in terms of capacity fade and impedance rise are found irrespective of the charging protocol.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017. Vol. 13, p. 325-333
Keywords [en]
Fast-charging, Charging to partial SOC, Non-destructive analysis, Lithium-ion battery ageing, Battery management, Charging protocol
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-220495DOI: 10.1016/j.est.2017.07.004ISI: 000417183300033Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85028014032OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-220495DiVA, id: diva2:1169054
Funder
Swedish Energy AgencyStandUp
Note

QC 20171222

Available from: 2017-12-22 Created: 2017-12-22 Last updated: 2018-04-24Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Durability Aspects of Fast Charging, Mechanical Constraint, and Inhomogeneity in Lithium-Ion Batteries
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Durability Aspects of Fast Charging, Mechanical Constraint, and Inhomogeneity in Lithium-Ion Batteries
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The development of lithium-ion batteries with higher energy and power density, better safety, and lower cost has significantly contributed to the increased market share of electric vehicles (EVs) in the last decade. However, the expectations of end-users of EVs still require a continuous quest for better performance. One important end-user expectation is the ability of the battery to be charged rapidly, but the durability of lithium-ion batteries could be affected by the fast charging. Hence, detailed investigations are required to understand the extent and mechanism of the degradation for an optimized battery usage and material development.   

In order to meet the high energy and power required in EVs, multiple large-format cells are connected in series and in parallel. Such a condition leads to an uneven distribution of temperature, pressure, and current in a cell or among cells that may cause locally inhomogeneous ageing and accelerate the global battery ageing. This thesis investigates the effects of charging rate, charging protocol, and external compression on battery durability. The impacts of inhomogeneities induced by cell design constraint, and uneven compression and temperature distributions are also addressed. The studies are based LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2/graphite cells. Cell housing for a controlled pressure and temperature application was developed. Electrochemical and material characterization techniques were used in the investigation.

The results show that fast charging at a rate equivalent to full charging in 20 minutes (3C rate) or less accelerates battery ageing. The ageing rate is less sensitive to charging rate in a longer charging time, i.e. at 2C and below, where it is determined more by factors such as the extent of full charging. In all cases, the capacity loss is limited by the cyclable lithium loss. External compression of a battery in an optimum range reduces ageing, but compression above or below the optimum range accelerates ageing. Lithium-ion batteries age non-uniformly. Cycling induces an increase in the impedance at the outer radius of curvature of a prismatic cell jellyroll, associated with a loss of contact between the current collector and the electrode coating. An unfavorable current distribution induced by uneven temperature distribution can accelerate battery ageing. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2018. p. 56
Series
TRITA-CBH-FOU ; 2018:13
Keywords
Lithium-ion batteries; NMC(111); Graphite; Cycle ageing, Fast-charging; Inhomogeneity; Current distribution; Pressure; Curvature; Temperature.
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Research subject
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-226512 (URN)978-91-7729-753-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-05-09, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
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Supervisors
Note

QC 20180419

Available from: 2018-04-19 Created: 2018-04-18 Last updated: 2018-04-19Bibliographically approved

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Klett, MatildaBehm, MårtenLindbergh, Göran

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