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Ultra Wideband Impulse Radio for Wireless Sensing and Identification
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS. (Electronics System Design)
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Ubiquitous computing and Internet-of-Things (IoT) implies an untapped opportunity in the realm of information and communication technology, in which a large number of micro-devices with communication and/or computing capabilities, provides connectivity for anything, by anyone at anytime and anywhere. Especially, these devices can be equipped with sensors and actuators that interact with our living environment. Barcode, smart contactless card, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems, wireless sensor network (WSN), and smart mobile phones are some examples which can be utilized in ubiquitous computing. RFIDs and WSN have been recognized as the two promising enablers for realization of ubiquitous computing. They have some great features such as low-cost and small- size implementation, non-line of sight operation, sensing possibilities, data storing ability, and positioning. However, there are several challenges which need to be addressed, such as limited life time for battery powered device, maintenance cost, longer operation range, higher data rate, and operation in dense multipath and multiuser environment. Ultra-Wideband Impulse Radio (UWB-IR) with its huge advantages has been recognized as a great solution for future WSN and RFID. UWB-IR technique has the possibility of achieving Gb/s data rate, hundreds of meter operation range, pJ energy per bit, centimeter accuracy of positioning, and low cost implementation. In this work utilization of UWB-IR in WSN and RFID is investigated. A wireless sensor network based on UWB-IR is proposed focusing on low-cost and low-power implementation. Our contribution is to imply two different architectures in base station and sensor nodes to satisfy power, complexity and cost constraints. For sensor nodes, an autonomous UWB-IR detection is proposed, which detects the UWB signal autonomously and no restrict synchronization is required. It reduces the circuit complexity significantly. The performance in term of bit-error-rate is compared with two other common detection techniques. It is shown that the new detection is more robustness to timing jitter and clock skew, which consequently reduces the clock and synchronization requirements considerably. A novel wireless sensing and identification system, based on remote-powered tag with asymmetric wireless link, is proposed. Our innovative contribution is to deploy two different UWB and UHF communication techniques in uplink and downlink respectively. In the proposed system, tags capture the required power supply from different environmental sources (e.g. electromagnetic wave transmitted by a reader) and transmit data through an ultra-low power impulse UWB link. A new communication protocol is devised based on slotted-aloha anti-collision algorithm. By introducing several improvements including of pipelined communication, adaptive frame size, and skipping idle slots, the system throughput of more than 2000 tags/s is achieved. To prove the system concept a single chip integrated tag is implemented in UMC 0.18μm CMOS process. The measurement results show the minimum sensitivity of -18.5 dB (14.1 μW) and adaptive data rate up to 10 Mb/s. It corresponds to 13.9 meters operation range, considering 4W EIRP, a matched antenna to the tag with 0dB gain, and free space path loss. This is a great improvement in operation range and data rate, compared with conventional passive RFID, which data rate is limited to a few hundreds of Kb/s. System integration in a Liquid-Crystal-polymer (LCP) substrate is investigated. The integration of a tunable UWB-IR transmitter and a power scavenging unit are studied. Our contribution includes embedding and modeling the RF components and antenna in substrate and co-optimizing the chip and package with on-chip versus off-chip passives trade-offs. Simulation results verify the potential of system-on-package solution for UWB integration. The effect of antenna miniaturization in a UWB system is studied. Our focus is to scale down a UWB antenna and optimize the performance through the chip-antenna co-design. A tunable impulse- UWB transmitter is designed in two cases - a conventional 50Ω design and a co-design methodology. The simulation results show that the standard 50Ω design technique can not reach the best condition in all cases, when a real antenna is placed into the system. The performance can be improved significantly when doing codesign. The antennas and UWB transmitter performances are evaluated in a given UWB systems. It is shown that the operation distance at a target performance is reduced with antenna scaling factor and it can be compensated by antenna-transceiver co-design. The result proves the importance of antenna-transceiver codesign, which needs to be addressed in the earliest phases of the design flow.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2008. , xvi, 72 p.
Series
Trita-ICT-ECS AVH, ISSN 1653-6363 ; 08:09
Keyword [en]
Ubiquitous computing, Impulse Radio, Ultra wideband, RFID, Wireless sensor, WSN, Antenna, System-on-Package
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-9565ISBN: 978-91-7415-153-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-9565DiVA: diva2:117502
Public defence
2008-12-04, Sal D, KTH-Forum, Isafjordsgatan 39, Kista, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100701Available from: 2008-11-17 Created: 2008-11-14 Last updated: 2010-07-01Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. An innovative receiver architecture for autonomous detection of ultra-wideband signals
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An innovative receiver architecture for autonomous detection of ultra-wideband signals
2006 (English)In: 2006 IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS: VOLS 1-11, PROCEEDINGS, 2006, 2589-2592 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Ultra wideband radio is an emerging wireless standard that uses sub-nanosecond pulses to transmit data, resulting in several GHz bandwidths. The problem of generating a synchronized template respect to the received signal grows in complexity as the signal bandwidth increases. In this paper, an innovative, low cost, non-coherent receiver architecture is proposed for autonomous detection of ultra wideband signals. The new receiver will self-generate a synchronous template and hence, no transmitter-reference synchronizer is required. We validate its performance via simulations compared with coherent receivers and conventional non-coherent receivers, the new architecture is found much more robust to timing noise and hence greatly facilitates the synchronise problem in UWB receiver.

Series
IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMP ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS, ISSN 0277-674X
Keyword
impulse radio, ultra wideband, non-coherent
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-13855 (URN)000245413502254 ()2-s2.0-34547281934 (Scopus ID)978-0-7803-9389-9 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, Kos Isl, GREECE, MAY 21-24, 2006, IEEE
Note
QC 20100630Available from: 2010-06-30 Created: 2010-06-30 Last updated: 2011-10-07Bibliographically approved
2. UWB radio module design for wireless sensor networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>UWB radio module design for wireless sensor networks
Show others...
2007 (English)In: Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, ISSN 0925-1030, E-ISSN 1573-1979, Vol. 50, no 1, 47-57 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we describe an impulse-based ultra wideband (UWB) radio system for wireless sensor network (WSN) applications. Different architectures have been studied for base station and sensor nodes. The base station node uses coherent UWB architecture because of the high performance and good sensitivity requirements. However, to meet complexity, power and cost constraints, the sensor module uses a novel non-coherent architecture that can autonomously detect the UWB signals. The radio modules include a transceiver block, a baseband processing unit and a power management block. The transceiver block includes a Gaussian pulse generator, a multiplier, an integrator and timing circuits. For long range applications, a wideband low noise amplifier (LNA) is included in the transceiver of the sensor module, whereas in short range applications it is simply eliminated to further reduce the power consumption. In order to verify the proposed system concept, circuit level implementation is studied using 1.5 V 0.18 mu m CMOS technology. Finally, the UWB radio modules have been designed for implementation in liquid-crystal-polymer (LCP) based System-on-Package (SOP) technology for low power, low cost and small size integration. A small low cost, double-slotted, Knight's helm antenna is embedded in the LCP substrate, which shows stable characterization and a return loss better than -10 dB over the UWB band.

Keyword
system-on-package, ultra wideband radio, wireless sensor networks, IMPULSE RADIO
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-13864 (URN)10.1007/s10470-006-9617-0 (DOI)000242611500007 ()2-s2.0-33845509863 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100630Available from: 2010-06-30 Created: 2010-06-30 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
3. A novel passive tag with asymmetric wireless link for RFID and WSN applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A novel passive tag with asymmetric wireless link for RFID and WSN applications
2007 (English)In: 2007 IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS: VOLS 1-11, 2007, 1593-1596 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we present a radio-powered module with asymmetric wireless link utilizing ultra wideband radio system for RFID and wireless sensor applications. Our contribution includes using two different standards in uplink and downlink. Such as conventional RFIDs, incoming RF signal transmitted by reader is used to power the internal circuitry and receive the data. However, in upstream link, an IR-UWB transmitter is utilized. Unlike traditional RFID systems, due to great advantages of UWB communication, this tag is very robust to multi-path fading and collision problem and it is more secure against eavesdropping or jamming. The module consists of a power scavenging unit, a RF receiver, an IR-UWB transmitter, digital baseband controller, and an embedded UWB antenna are designed for integration on Liquid-Crystal Polymer (LCP) substrate, using 0.18um CMOS process technology.

Series
IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMP ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS, ISSN 0277-674X
Keyword
Bandwidth; Electronic document identification systems; Passive networks; Radio transmission
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-13865 (URN)000251608402033 ()2-s2.0-34548823286 (Scopus ID)978-1-4244-0920-4 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, New Orleans, LA, MAY 27-30, 2007, IEEE
Note
QC 20100630Available from: 2010-06-30 Created: 2010-06-30 Last updated: 2010-07-06Bibliographically approved
4. An efficient passive RFID system for ubiquitous identification and sensing using impulse UWB radio
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An efficient passive RFID system for ubiquitous identification and sensing using impulse UWB radio
2007 (English)In: Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik, ISSN 0932-383X, Vol. 124, no 11, 397-403 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The next generation RFID system for ubiquitous identification and sensing requires both energy and system efficiency. This paper describes an efficient passive RFID system using impulse ultra-wideband radio (IR-UWB), at a 10 m operation range. Unlike conventional passive RFID systems which rely on backscatter and narrowband radio, IR-UWB is introduced as the uplink (communication from a tag to a reader). By utilizing a specialized communication protocol and a novel ALOHA-based anti-collision algorithm, such semi-UWB systems enable a high network throughput (2000 tag/sec) under the low power and low cost constraint. A low power tag design for proof of concept is finally presented.

Keyword
Broadband networks; Congestion control (communication); Electronic document identification systems; Radio links; Sensor networks, Impulse ultra-wideband radio (IR-UWB); Network throughput; Semi-UWB architecture; Ubiquitous sensing, Ubiquitous computing
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-13871 (URN)10.1007/s00502-007-0483-y (DOI)2-s2.0-37349003142 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100630Available from: 2010-06-30 Created: 2010-06-30 Last updated: 2012-01-10Bibliographically approved
5. Enabling Ubiquitous Wireless Sensing by a Novel RFID-Based UWB Module
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enabling Ubiquitous Wireless Sensing by a Novel RFID-Based UWB Module
Show others...
2007 (English)In: The First International EURASIP Workshop on RFID Technology, RFID 2007, 24-25 September 2007, Vienna, Austria, 2007Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we present a novel passive CMOS module which uses two different standards in uplink and downlink. It can be used in many applications such as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), and ubiquitous wireless sensing. Such as conventional RFID systems, the module captures power supply from received RF signal transmitted by a reader and extracts data and clock by using an envelope detector and PIE encoder. However, in uplink instead of back scattering, an Impulse-UWB transmitter is used to improve the system performance and throughput. The UWB communication offers several advantages to the system. A new communication protocol is proposed for the system based on slotted-ALOHA anti-collision algorithm. The module consisting of a power management unit, an RF narrowband receiver, a clock management unit, an IR-UWB transmitter, and a digital baseband are designed in 0.18 CMOS process.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-13909 (URN)
Note
QC 20100701Available from: 2010-07-01 Created: 2010-07-01 Last updated: 2010-07-01Bibliographically approved
6. Chip-package and antenna co-design of a tunable UWB transmitter in System-on-Package with on-chip versus off-chip passives
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chip-package and antenna co-design of a tunable UWB transmitter in System-on-Package with on-chip versus off-chip passives
2006 (English)In: ESTC 2006: 1st Electronics Systemintegration Technology Conference: Vols 1 and 2, Proceedings, 2006, 291-298 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper we present a self-powered CMOS ultra wideband radio transmitter integrated in a Liquid-Crystal Polymer (LCP) based System on Package (SoP) module with an embedded small antenna. Chip-package-antenna co-design is performed for this module in the presence of unwanted packaging parasitic effects and optimizes the transmission efficiency. Our contribution includes new modeling of the RF-package and antenna and co-optimizing the chip and package design with on-chip versus off-chip passives trade-offs. The Sop module consists of an innovative tunable low power CMOS transmitter for IR-UWB communication, a double-slotted small-size embedded UWB antenna, and a power converter. The output amplitude and duration of the transmitter can be tuned to transmit a signal meeting the FCC mask in different pulse repetition rate for long and short range applications. This ability can also be used to compensate the process and temperature variations as well as the parasitic effects of packaging and antenna. The antenna has a return loss of better than -10dB. The power converter consists of a chain of surface mounted shottkey diodes and capacitors, which converts incident electromagnetic waves to DC supply and thus power up the transmitter. The final module is implemented in LCP substrate with integrated passive components and embedded antenna. The chip part is implemented in 0.18um CMOS process.

Keyword
Antenna arrays, Broadband networks, Chip scale packages, CMOS integrated circuits, Embedded systems, Optimization, Passive networks
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-13876 (URN)10.1109/ESTC.2006.280013 (DOI)000241425800044 ()2-s2.0-42549091981 (Scopus ID)978-142440552-7 (ISBN)
Conference
ESTC 2006 - 1st Electronics Systemintegration Technology Conference; Dresden, Saxony; Germany; 5 September 2006 through 7 September 2006
Note

QC 20100630

Available from: 2010-06-30 Created: 2010-06-30 Last updated: 2014-11-06Bibliographically approved
7. Impulse UWB Antenna size reduction due to Transmitter-Antenna Co-design
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impulse UWB Antenna size reduction due to Transmitter-Antenna Co-design
Show others...
2008 (English)In: 2008 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ULTRA-WIDEBAND: VOL 2, PROCEEDINGS, New York: IEEE , 2008, Vol. 2, 37-40 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper, the benefit of a co-design between a modified small-size Printed Tapered Monopole Antenna (PTMA) and an Impulse Ultra Wideband transmitter Is Investigated for the 3.1-10.6GHz bond. A comparison is given between a 50 Omega design and a co-designed version. The simulation results show that with the co-design method the tunable UWB transmitter can reach the bandwidth regulation for a much smaller antenna.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: IEEE, 2008
Series
Hannoversche Beitrage zur Nachrichtentechnik
Keyword
Antennas; Cobalt; Cobalt compounds; Design; Telecommunication systems; Transmitters; Wireless telecommunication systems; Co designs; Ghz bands; Monopole antennas; Simulation results; Ultra wideband transmitters; Uwb antennas; UWB transmitters
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-13877 (URN)10.1109/ICUWB.2008.4653346 (DOI)000262480600010 ()2-s2.0-56749115945 (Scopus ID)978-1-4244-2216-6 (ISBN)
Conference
8th IEEE International Conference on Ultra-Wideband, Leibniz Univ Hannover, Hannover, GERMANY, SEP 10-12, 2008, IEEE
Note
QC 20100630Available from: 2010-06-30 Created: 2010-06-30 Last updated: 2011-04-04Bibliographically approved
8. Miniaturization of UWB antennas and its influence on UWB-transceiver performance
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Miniaturization of UWB antennas and its influence on UWB-transceiver performance
Show others...
(English)In: IEEE transactions on microwave theory and techniques, ISSN 0018-9480, E-ISSN 1557-9670Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Keyword
antenna; design methodology; impulse radio; transceiver; ultra-wideband
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-13893 (URN)
Note
QC 20100701Available from: 2010-07-01 Created: 2010-07-01 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
9. A remote-powered RFID tag with 10Mb/s UWB Uplink and -18.5dBm sensitivity UHF downlink in 0.18μm CMOS
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A remote-powered RFID tag with 10Mb/s UWB Uplink and -18.5dBm sensitivity UHF downlink in 0.18μm CMOS
Show others...
2009 (English)In: Digest of technical papers / IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference, ISSN 0193-6530, 198-199,199a p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this work, a 10 Mb/s impulse UWB RFID tag in 0.18 mum CMOS is presented. The tag is remotely powered by a UHF signal with a minimum input RF power as low as 14.1 muW. The primary innovation is to employ two different communication links (UWB and UHF) respectively in the uplink and downlink of the tag. This is because the amount of data or instructions from a reader to a tag is small and as a result a conventional UHF-RFID link at 900MHz can be used as the downlink. The UHF signal also provides remote power to the tag. The uplink requires higher data rates and precise positioning capability therefore an l-UWB transmitter is employed.

Keyword
CMOS integrated circuits, radiofrequency identification, ultra wideband communication, CMOS, UHF downlink, UWB uplink, bit rate 100 Mbit/s, frequency 900 MHz, power 14.1 muW, remote-powered RFID tag, size 0.18 mum
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-13913 (URN)10.1109/ISSCC.2009.4977376 (DOI)2-s2.0-70349282144 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100701. Uppdaterad från konferensbidrag (2009 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference ISSCC 2009) till artikel (20100701). Available from: 2010-07-01 Created: 2010-07-01 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved

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