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A Large-Area Single-Filament Infrared Emitter for Spectroscopic Gas Sensing of Ethanol
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8853-0967
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Non-dispersive infrared spectroscopy is a promising technology for highly-accurate and maintenance-free gas sensing of ethanol. However, non-dispersive infrared sensor systems are currently too expensive for many application areas such as consumer and automotive applications. The infrared emitter is a critical and relatively costly component in today’s non-dispersive infrared systems. Here we report on a low-cost large-area single filament infrared emitter that is viable for non-dispersive infrared gas spectroscopy systems with small dimensions. The proposed infrared emitter is based on joule heating of a Kanthal filament and provides a broadband emission spectrum suitable for non-dispersive infrared gas sensing. Placement and attachment of the filament on the substrate is performed using a conventional high-speed automated wire bonding tool. Our fabrication approach enables simple and rapid rendering of a large meander-shaped emitter filament. Operation and performance of the fabricated infrared emitters were studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to analyse the effective infrared emission spectrum relevant for non-dispersive infrared gas sensing. Thermal properties such as temperature distribution across the infrared emitter was investigated. To demonstrate the viability of the meander-shaped infrared emitter for non-dispersive infrared gas sensing, the IR emitter was implemented in a non-dispersive infrared gas sensor system and the detection of varying ethanol concentrations as well as the detection of elevated breath alcohol concentration levels was demonstrated.

Keywords [en]
Infrared (IR) emitter, wire bonding, wire integration platform, non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) gas 27 sensing, spectroscopic gas sensing, alcohol breath analyser
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-222361OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-222361DiVA, id: diva2:1181017
Note

QC 20180207

Available from: 2018-02-07 Created: 2018-02-07 Last updated: 2018-02-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Towards Unconventional Applications of Wire Bonding
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards Unconventional Applications of Wire Bonding
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis presents novel heterogeneous integration approaches of wire materials to fabricated and package MEMS devices by exploring unconventional applications of wire bonding technology. Wire bonding, traditionally endemic in the realm of device packaging to establish electrical die-to-package interconnections, is an attractive back-end technology, offering promising features, such as high throughput, flexibility and placement accuracy. Exploiting the advantages of state-of-the-art wire bonding technology and substitute the conventional micro welding approach with an innovative attachment concept, a generic integration platform for a multitude of wire materials is provided. This facilitates a cost-efficient and selective integration, which involves the attachment and shaping of a variety of intrinsically non-bondable wire materials. Furthermore, the selective integration of wire materials provides a simple method to generate complex suspended geometries, which circumvents the need for subsequent processing. The first part of this thesis reports of the integration of non-bondable shape memory alloy wires on wafer-level, which has led to an innovative method to fabricate micro actuators. Moreover, the integration of high performance resistive heating wires on chip-level is utilized to fabricate filament based infrared emitters, targeting non-dispersive infrared gas sensing of alcohol for automotive applications. In the second part, a series of unconventional applications of wire integration using the traditional thermo-sonic wire bonding approach is presented. A novel and low-cost nitric oxide gas sensor is realized by producing vertical bond wires featuring high aspect ratio. Next, the high placement accuracy of wire bonding tools is leveraged to integrate conductive metals cores for fabricating high aspect ratio through silicon vias. Finally, an advanced packaging approach for stress-sensitive MEMS gyroscopes is evaluated, which exclusively utilizes bond wires for realizing the die attachment.

Abstract [sv]

Denna avhandling presenterar nya integrationsmetoder av trådmaterial för tillverkning och kapsling av mikro-elektromekaniska system (MEMS), genom att undersöka okonventionella tillämpningar av trådbondningsteknik.Trådbondning används traditionellt för att skapa elektrisk kontakt mellan chip och kapsel i integrerade kretsar. Det är en etablerad back-end teknologi med fördelar som hög hastighet, flexibilitet och placeringsnoggrannhet. Genom att utnyttja fördelarna hos toppmodern trådbondningsteknik och ersätta konventionell mikrosvetsning med ett innovativt koncept för att fästa tråden, tillhandahålls en generisk integrationsplattform för en mängd olika trådmaterial. Detta tillåter en kostnadseffektiv och selektiv integrering vilken består av fixering och formning av en rad icke-bondbara trådmaterial. Vidare ger den selektiva integrationen av trådmaterial en enkel metod för att generera komplexa suspenderade geometrier, som gör efterföljande bearbetning överflödig.Den första delen av avhandlingen beskriver integration av icke-bondbar minnesmetall på kiselskivor, som möjliggjort en innovativ metod för att tillverka mikroaktuatorer. Dessutom används integration av högkvalitativa resistiva trådar på chip-nivå för att tillverka filamentbaserade infraröda emittrar, ämnade för gasmätning av alkohol i fordon. I andra delen presenteras en serie av okonventionella tillämpningar av trådintegration med användning av den traditionella termo-soniska trådbondningsmetoden. En ny och billig kväveoxidgassensor tillverkades genom att producera vertikala bondtrådar på chip. Den exakta placeringsnoggrannheten hos trådbondningsverktyget används för att integrera metallkärnor som skapar en elektrisk kontakt genom kisel. Slutligen utvärderas en avancerad fixering av stresskänsliga MEMS-gyroskop i kapsel, vilket uteslutande utnyttjar bindningstrådar.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2018. p. 92
Series
TRITA-EECS-AVL ; 2018:8
Keywords
Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS), heterogeneous 3D integration, wire bonding, wire integration, transfer wafer bonding, nondispersive infrared gas sensing, low-stress packaging, shape memory alloy (SMA), infrared (IR) emitter, through silicon via (TSV), ethanol sensing, nitric oxide gas sensing, wafer-level, chip-level, Kanthal, nickel chromium (NiCr)
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-222346 (URN)978-91-7729-673-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-03-02, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
EU, European Research Council, 277879VINNOVA, 2015-00402
Note

QC 20180207

Available from: 2018-02-07 Created: 2018-02-07 Last updated: 2018-02-12Bibliographically approved

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