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Developing a dynamic optimization model for electric bus charging infrastructure
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2896-8841
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7123-1824
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2017 (English)In: Transportation Research Procedia, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 27, p. 776-783Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Urban regions account for 64% of global primary energy use and 70% of carbon emissions. For that reason, options to decarbonize urban environments are receiving increasing attention. In this context, public transport shall play a key role in decarbonizing urban road transport. One efficient way to achieve that is shifting towards clean fuels and modern electric buses, an option that is already under implementation in several cities around the world. In this paper, the basis for developing a dynamic optimization model for establishing charging infrastructure for electric buses is presented, using Stockholm, Sweden, as a case study. The model places constraints depending on the bus stop type (end or middle stop) which affects the time available for charging at each particular location. It also identifies the optimal technology type for the buses: conductive or inductive. In addition, the electric buses compete with buses run on biogas or biodiesel. In this paper, we present the results of a cost minimization scenario with constraints placed on the available charging time and power, differentiated between end stops and major public transport hubs. The mean charging time is 7.33 minutes, with a standard deviation of 4.78 minutes for all bus stops. The inner city bus routes require less charging time, which ranges on average at around 3 minutes. The installation of chargers at the locations proposed in the model would require scheduling adjustments and careful planning for the density of charging occasions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017. Vol. 27, p. 776-783
Series
Transportation Research Procedia, ISSN 2352-1457 ; 27
Keywords [en]
charging infrastructure, electric bus, Mixed Integer Linear Programming, optimization, public transport, Sweden
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-223095DOI: 10.1016/j.trpro.2017.12.075Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85039946918OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-223095DiVA, id: diva2:1182601
Conference
20th EURO Working Group on Transportation Meeting, EWGT 2017, 4-6 September 2017, Budapest, Hungary
Note

QC 20180214

Available from: 2018-02-14 Created: 2018-02-14 Last updated: 2018-04-18Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Towards electrified public bus transport: The case of Stockholm
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards electrified public bus transport: The case of Stockholm
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis addresses the challenge of road transport electrification using a systems approach for the particular context of Stockholm’s public transport system. The objective is to identify the benefits of large-scale bus electrification on energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions, as well as the cost and planning considerations required for achieving such a shift. Quantitative and qualitative methods are deployed for answering the research questions, including the development and use of an optimisation model, survey research, and interviews. 

The results of the optimisation model developed for this thesis show that an optimal system configuration is obtained with a combination of electricity and biodiesel. The high energy efficiency of electric buses would lead to a significant reduction of energy consumption in Stockholm, even if not all bus routes in the network are electrified. Although larger battery capacities could support the electrification of more bus routes, this does not necessarily lead to lower environmental impact. In any case, electricity from renewable sources should be used to maximise emission reductions. 

The results also show that the annual costs necessary to invest in electric buses can be balanced by lower fuel costs. An effective utilisation of the charging infrastructure is of high priority in order to justify the costs of the required investments. The model results confirm the benefits of creating a dense initial network of charging stations in the inner city’s public transport hubs, which would facilitate the electrification of multiple routes and high infrastructure utilisation at lower costs. 

The survey and interviews with stakeholders indicate that multiple issues affect the choice of charging technology, not just costs. Compatibility, reliability, bus dwell time, as well as weather conditions and visual impact are some of the additional aspects taken into account. The introduction of electricity tax exemption for electric buses, the expansion of the electric bus premium to include private stakeholders, as well as the expansion of infrastructure investment subsidy programmes are among the policy instruments suggested for assisting a faster introduction of electric buses into Stockholm’s public transport system. 

Although the focus is on Stockholm, the conclusions of this work can be applicable to other cities in Sweden and around the world, which also face the challenge of making public transport a more sustainable option.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2018. p. 77
Series
TRITA-ECS Report ; TRITA-ECS Report 18/02
Keywords
electric bus; charging infrastructure; optimisation; public transport; fossil-free; transport planning; Sweden
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-226518 (URN)978-91-7729-742-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-05-16, E2, Lindstedtsvägen 3, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Energy AgencyThe Swedish Knowledge Centre for Renewable Transportation Fuels (f3)Integrated Transport Research Lab (ITRL)
Available from: 2018-04-19 Created: 2018-04-18 Last updated: 2018-05-15Bibliographically approved

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