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Influence of Water on Coarse Granular Road Material Properties
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7692-714X
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Even though the practical experience of using coarse unbound granular materials is extensive, detailed knowledge on the mechanical and hydraulic behavior is to a large extent lacking. Regarding influence of water on mechanical properties, this is even more pronounced. The main objective of this work was to investigate the influence of water on behavior and properties of coarse granular materials. The study comprises measurements of resilient properties, soil-water characteristic curve and influence of water content on dielectric properties measured by the use of time domain reflectometry (TDR).

The work described herein comprised two test series in terms of materials: firstly, a series where the grading was changed and secondly, a series where the influence of increased contents of free mica was studied. To measure resilient response, triaxial testing, using sample size of 500 mm diameter and 1000 mm height, was performed mainly using constant confining pressures. Tests were performed at incrementally varying water contents up to almost full saturation. Dielectric response and matric suction of compacted specimens were measured in a steel box at varying water content.

Results from the first series indicated that the influence of water content on resilient properties depends on the material grading. The coarsest grading, containing least fines, experienced only a small reduction when brought close to saturation. Specimens with an increased amount of fines and more even distribution responded with a substantial loss of resilient modulus upon increased water content. It also appeared as water content increased, the specimens became more dilative. From the second series, generally, resilient modulus decreased with increased mica content and furthermore, elevated water contents caused reduction in stiffness. However, in relative terms, the reduction in resilient modulus caused by water decreased with increased mica content. The soil-water characteristic curves are influenced by grading coefficient and mica content; retentive capacity increases with decreased grading coefficient and increases with increased amount of mica. Volumetric water content as a function of apparent relative permittivity was fitted using a third-degree polynomial. Although, determined relationships deviated from Topp's (1980) relationship.

Detailed information on the work is given in five enclosed papers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2007. , 65 p.
Series
Trita-VT. FR, ISSN 1650-867X ; 07:02
Keyword [en]
Highway Engineering, Granulat materials
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4329OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-4329DiVA: diva2:11827
Public defence
2007-04-25, Sal F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100705Available from: 2007-04-12 Created: 2007-04-12 Last updated: 2012-03-20Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Influence of water on resilient properties of coarse granular materials
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of water on resilient properties of coarse granular materials
2006 (English)In: International Journal on Road Materials and Pavement Design, ISSN 1468-0629, Vol. 7, no 3, 369-404 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The objective of this work was to investigate influence of water on resilient properties of a coarse (maximum particle size 90 mm) granular material using various gradings. Triaxial testing, using large-size samples (diameter 500 mm and height 1000 mm) and constant confining pressures, was performed at varying water content up to practically full saturation. Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) was used to monitor transient in-sample water contents. Evaluation comprised resilient modulus and Poisson ratio in terms of total stresses, although the results were also discussed in the context of effective stresses. The coarsest grading experienced only a small reduction in resilient modulus when brought close to saturation, while specimens with an increased amount of fines and more even distribution responded with a substantial loss of resilient modulus upon increased water content. It also appeared that, as water content increased, the specimens became more dilative (increase in Poisson ratio).

Keyword
granular soils; effective stress; resilient modulus; water content; time domain reflectometry; matric suction
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6961 (URN)10.3166/rmpd.7.369-404 (DOI)000240077400006 ()2-s2.0-33845649671 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100705Available from: 2007-04-12 Created: 2007-04-12 Last updated: 2012-03-20Bibliographically approved
2. Time domain reflectometry measurements and soil-water characteristic curves of coarse granular materials used in road pavements
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Time domain reflectometry measurements and soil-water characteristic curves of coarse granular materials used in road pavements
2007 (English)In: Canadian geotechnical journal (Print), ISSN 0008-3674, Vol. 44, no 7, 858-872 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Coarse granular materials are used extensively in road construction. Bearing capacity can be affected by the water content in the layers of these materials. The ability to estimate water content and to infer water movements is therefore important. The purpose of the work described herein was to determine soil-water characteristic curves and the relationship between relative apparent permittivity and volumetric water content for coarse (maximum particle size 90 mm) granular materials having various gradations. The relative apparent permittivity was measured with the aid of time-domain reflectometry (TDR), and the concurrent matric suction was measured with a tensiometer. Samples were prepared in a steel box and were heavily compacted, and TDR probes and a tensiometer cup were buried within the matrix. The variation in volumetric water content with apparent relative permittivity was found to deviate from the Topp et al. relationship. Soil-water characteristic curves were described using the Brooks-Corey and van Genuchten models. A pronounced hysteresis between wetting and drying paths was observed. For the low water retention coarse materials, measurements of water content might, in general, require correction because of the nonlinear distribution of water in the sample.

Keyword
pavement; time-domain reflectometry; soil-water characteristic curve; granular material
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6962 (URN)10.1139/T07-024 (DOI)000249708200008 ()2-s2.0-35448953585 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100705. Uppdaterad från Accepted till Published i Diva 20100705.Available from: 2007-04-12 Created: 2007-04-12 Last updated: 2012-03-20Bibliographically approved
3. Influence of water and mica content on resilient properties of coarse granular materials
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of water and mica content on resilient properties of coarse granular materials
2008 (English)In: The international journal of pavement engineering, ISSN 1029-8436, Vol. 9, no 3, 215-227 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Elevated amounts of free mica particles in unbound granular materials used in road construction are believed to detrimentally influence bearing capacity. The objective of presented work was to investigate the influence of mica content on resilient properties of coarse granular material (maximum particle size 63mm) under varying water contents. The test scheme comprised triaxial tests, using constant confining pressures, at incrementally raised water contents up to practically full saturation. Increased mica content was achieved by replacing a part of the base material grading smaller than 4mm, with an equal amount of pure muscovite mica of similar grading, hence keeping the overall particle size distribution unchanged. Generally, resilient modulus decreased with increased mica content and elevated water contents caused reduction in stiffness. In relative terms, the reduction in resilient modulus caused by water decreased with increased mica content.

Keyword
Granular materials; Mica; Moisture; Time domain reflectometry; Triaxial test
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6963 (URN)10.1080/10298430701551193 (DOI)2-s2.0-46149100774 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100705. Uppdaterad från Submitted till Published i DiVA 20100705.Available from: 2007-04-12 Created: 2007-04-12 Last updated: 2012-03-20Bibliographically approved
4. Influence of mica content on time domain reflectometry and soil-water characteristic curve of coarse granular materials
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of mica content on time domain reflectometry and soil-water characteristic curve of coarse granular materials
2008 (English)In: ASTM geotechnical testing journal, ISSN 0149-6115, Vol. 31, no 4, 321-333 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Elevated fractions of free mica particles in unbound granular materials, used in road constructions, are believed to reduce bearing capacity and influence the hydraulic behavior of the road structure. The objective of this investigation was to study the influence of mica content on the soil water characteristic curve and the dielectric response measured by time domain reflectometry, for coarse granular (maximum particle size 63 mm) materials. Increased fraction of mica was achieved by partly replacing the base crushed rock material smaller than 4 mm, by pure muscovite mica of similar grading, thereby keeping the overall particle size distribution unchanged. Acquired results indicated that, given equal matric suction, the water retention capacity increased with increased amount of mica. Concerning the time domain reflectometry measurements, no influence of mica content could be detected. Determined water contents required adjustment because of the nonlinear distribution of water in the sample.

Keyword
granular materials; mica; moisture; time domain reflectometry; soil water characteristic curve
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6964 (URN)000257724800005 ()2-s2.0-54949136598 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100705. Uppdaterad från Submitted till Published i DiVA 20100705.Available from: 2007-04-12 Created: 2007-04-12 Last updated: 2012-03-20Bibliographically approved
5. Statistical evaluation of resilient models for characterizing coarse granular materials
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Statistical evaluation of resilient models for characterizing coarse granular materials
2008 (English)In: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 41, no 3, 509-525 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Consistent material modeling is a prerequisite for a mechanistic approach to pavement design. The scope of this investigation was to statistically evaluate the efficiency of various resilient models commonly encountered in highway engineering. These models were categorized as describing either resilient modulus or shear and volumetric strains. Triaxial tests using constant and cyclic confining pressure were performed on coarse granular materials of various gradings (maximum particle size 90 mm). Two statistical methods, the extra sum of squares F-test and the Akaike information criterion, were used for model comparison. Concerning resilient modulus, the Uzan model provided, in general, a statistically significant improvement compared to the k-theta model. However, this improvement is lost if a constant Poisson ratio is used to predict shear and volumetric strains. In case of the shear-volumetric approach, no single model was most likely to be the best model for all gradings studied.

Keyword
unbound granular materials; resilient modulus; shear-volumetric models; Akaike information criterion; highway engineering
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6965 (URN)10.1617/s11527-007-9262-9 (DOI)000254112600006 ()2-s2.0-41049112479 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100705. Uppdaterad från Submitted till Published i DiVA 20100705.Available from: 2007-04-12 Created: 2007-04-12 Last updated: 2012-03-20Bibliographically approved

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