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Lignin-based carbon fibers for renewable and multifunctional lithium-ion battery electrodes
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2029-4945
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering.
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2018 (English)In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 72, no 2, p. 81-90Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Lignin-based carbon fibers (LCFs) from the renewable resource softwood kraft lignin were synthesized via oxidative thermostabilization of pure melt-spun lignin and carbonization at different temperatures from 1000 degrees C to 1700 degrees C. The resulting LCFs were characterized by tensile testing, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and confocal Raman spectroscopy. The microstructure is mainly amorphous carbon with some nanocrystalline domains. The strength and stiffness are inversely proportional to the carbonization temperature, while the LCFs carbonized at 1000 degrees C exhibit a strength of 628 MPa and a stiffness of 37 GPa. Furthermore, the application potential of LCFs was evaluated as negative electrodes in a lithium-ion battery (LIB) by electrochemical cycling at different current rates in a half-cell setup. The capacity drops with the carbonization temperature and the LCFs carbonized at 1000 degrees C have a capacity of 335 mAh g(-1). All LCFs showed good cycling stability. Because of the mechanical integrity and conductivity of the LCFs, there is no need to apply current collectors, conductive additives or binders. The advantage is an increased gravimetric energy density compared to graphite, which is the most common negative electrode material. LCFs show a promising multifunctional behavior, including good mechanical integrity, conductivity and an ability to intercalate lithium for LIBs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Walter de Gruyter, 2018. Vol. 72, no 2, p. 81-90
Keywords [en]
lignin-based carbon fibers, lithium-ion battery, melt-spinning, multifunctional, softwood kraft lignin
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-222403DOI: 10.1515/hf-2017-0044ISI: 000423540500001Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85041645591OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-222403DiVA, id: diva2:1183840
Note

QC 20180219

Available from: 2018-02-19 Created: 2018-02-19 Last updated: 2018-05-24Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Carbon Fibres for Multifunctional Lithium-Ion Batteries
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Carbon Fibres for Multifunctional Lithium-Ion Batteries
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The transportation industry today faces many challenges because of the rapid movement towards electrification. One major challenge is the weight of the battery, which limits the effectiveness of the vehicles. One of the possible routes to reduce the weight on a system-level is introducing structural batteries, batteries that simultaneously storeenergy and hold a mechanical load. Placing these batteries in a load-bearing part of the structure reduces weight and increases effectiveness on a system level. Carbon fibres are especially suited for structural batteries because of the high performance as reinforcement material in a polymer composite, as well as the ability to insert lithium to function as negative electrodes in batteries.

Another field that has attracted attention the latest years is flexible batteries due to the emerging of flexible displays and wearable electronics. Carbon fibres can be a suitable material in flexible batteries due to the good conductivity, mechanical integrity and ability to forman integrated flexible film with cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) as binder.

This thesis focuses on the usage of carbon fibres in structural and flexible batteries. Lignin based and commercial carbon fibres are evaluated as negative electrodes using a combination of electrochemical methods, material characterization and mechanical testing. Further, the diffusion is characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, revealing an inequality of axial and radial diffusion in carbon fibres. The carbon fibres with a largely disordered structure show most promise as a negative electrode, with a capacity similar to graphite and having a high coulombic efficiency.

Carbon fibres used as current collectors are evaluated as well, both continuous LiFePO4 coated carbon fibres with electrophoretic deposition for structural positive electrode applications and chopped carbonfibres bounded by CNF as a layer in a flexible electrode. The LiFePO4 coated carbon fibres show promise as a structural electrode with moderatecapacity, high coulombic efficiency, good rate performance and good adhesion between fibres and coating. The flexible electrodes with carbon fibres as current collectors perform well with a high capacity, good rate performance, low weight and high flexibility. The electrodes withstand bending for 4000 times without any performance degradation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Kungliga tekniska högskolan, 2018. p. 78
National Category
Other Chemical Engineering
Research subject
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-227296 (URN)978-91-7729-763-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-05-30, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 37712-1
Note

QC 20180507

Available from: 2018-05-07 Created: 2018-05-07 Last updated: 2018-05-07Bibliographically approved

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Hagberg, JohanLeijonmarck, SimonLindbergh, Göran

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