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Liquid-tin-jet laser-plasma extreme ultraviolet generation
KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
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2004 (English)In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 84, no 13, 2556-2258 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We demonstrate the applicability of liquid-metal jets in vacuum as regenerative targets for laser-plasma generation of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray radiation. This extends the operation of liquid jet laser-plasma,sources to high-temperature, high-Z, high-density, low-vapor-pressure materials with new spectral signatures. The system is demonstrated using tin (Sn) as the target due to its strong emission around lambdaapproximate to13 nm, which makes the material suitable for EUV lithography. We show a conversion efficiency of 2.5% into (2% BW x 2pi x sr) and report quantitative measurements of the ionic/atomic as well as particulate debris emission.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2004. Vol. 84, no 13, 2556-2258 p.
Keyword [en]
Calibration; Charge coupled devices; Electron beams; Electron transitions; Jets; Light emission; Light reflection; Liquid metals; Photolithography; Scanning electron microscopy; Tin; Ultraviolet radiation; X rays; Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography; High-repetition-rate lasers; Liquid-metal jets; Particulate debris emission; Laser produced plasmas
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7013DOI: 10.1063/1.1690874ISI: 000220591500012Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-2142714542OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-7013DiVA: diva2:11888
Note
QC 20100819Available from: 2007-04-20 Created: 2007-04-20 Last updated: 2012-03-22Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Compact Soft X-Ray Microscopy: Sources, Optics and Instrumentation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Compact Soft X-Ray Microscopy: Sources, Optics and Instrumentation
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

This thesis describes the development of a sub-60-nm full-period resolution compact soft x-ray microscope operating in the water-window region (2.3-4.4 nm). Soft x-ray water-window microscopy is a powerful technique for high-resolution imaging of organic materials exploiting the natural contrast mechanism between carbon and oxygen, cf. Sect. 4.1. The thesis discusses the components of, as well as the integration of the microscope, including liquid-jet laser-plasma x-ray sources, optics, simulations, and image-processing tools.

Liquid-jet-target laser-plasma sources for generation of soft x-rays and extreme-ultraviolet radiation are compact sources with high brightness. The work focused on improved target stability, decreased debris, and accurate source characterization. For x ray microscopy applications a liquid-jet target delivery system allowing cryogenic liquids was developed. Source characterization was performed for two different liquid-jet targets: Methanol and liquid nitrogen. For extreme-ultraviolet lithography applications, the potential use of a liquid-tin-jet laser-plasma source was explored including conversion efficiency and debris measurements.

High quality optics are essential in the development of compact x-ray microscopes. For soft x-ray wavelengths, zone plates and multilayer mirrors are used to focus or redirect radiation. This thesis describes the development and characterization of a condenser zone plate suitable for use in a compact soft x-ray microscope operating at λ = 2.478 nm. It also investigates the possibility to perform differential interference contrast microscopy in the water window using a single diffractive optical element. An arrangement for rapid and accurate determination of absolute and local diffraction efficiency of soft x-ray zone plates using a compact laser-plasma source has been developed. The instrument is used to characterize the zone plates fabricated at the Biomedical & X-Ray Physics division at KTH. Through a collaboration with the Fraunhofer-Institut in Jena, Germany, a large diameter spherical Cr/Sc multilayer mirror, suitable as condenser in the compact x-ray microscope, was developed and characterized. The mirror is designed for λ = 3.374 nm and shows a high, and uniform reflectivity of 3%. This increases the photon flux by an order of magnitude compared to the W/B4C mirrors previously used.

The thesis describes the development of a compact soft x-ray microscope with sub-60-nm full-period resolution. It can operate at two different wavelengths in the water window using the soft x-ray laser-plasma sources combined with the condenser optics described above. Imaging is performed by zone plate objectives. The microscope is capable of imaging hydrated biological samples with thicknesses up to ~10 μm. Improvements made to the mechanical design has turned it into a user friendly instrument allowing daily operation. A numerical method was developed to study the effects of partially coherent illumination on 2D imaging. To stimulate experiments on functional imaging in x-ray microscopy an image-analysis algorithm for identifying colloidal-gold particles was developed. Size selective identification and localization of single gold particles down to a diameter of 50 nm was demonstrated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2007. x, 59 p.
Series
Trita-FYS, ISSN 0280-316X ; 2007:25
Keyword
soft x-ray microscopy, water window, compact, laser plasma, liquid jet, zone plate optics
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4342 (URN)978-91-7178-613-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2007-05-04, FD 5, Albanova, Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm, 13:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100819Available from: 2007-04-20 Created: 2007-04-20 Last updated: 2010-08-20Bibliographically approved

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Holmberg, AndersHertz, Hans

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