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Liquid-nitrogen-jet laser-plasma source for compact soft x-ray microscopy
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4394-0591
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2723-6622
2005 (English)In: Review of Scientific Instruments, ISSN 0034-6748, E-ISSN 1089-7623, Vol. 76, no 4, 043503- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We describe a liquid-nitrogen-jet laser-plasma source with sufficient brightness, uniformity, stability, and reliability to be suitable for compact water-window soft x-ray transmission microscopy. A cooled capillary nozzle arrangement allows long-term operation and avoids previously reported jet instabilities. The source is quantitatively characterized by calibrated slit-grating spectroscopy and zone-plate imaging. The absolute photon number in the major spectral lines (lambda=2.48 nm and lambda=2.88 nm) is 1.0x10(12) photons/(pulsexsrxline). The source diameter is similar to 20 mu m (full width at half maximum) and the spatial stability is better than +/- 2 mu m. Within an area with uniformity of 20%, the average source brightness is 4x10(8) photons/(pulsexsrx mu m(2)xline), which allows operation of a compact soft x-ray transmission microscope with exposure times of a few minutes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2005. Vol. 76, no 4, 043503- p.
Keyword [en]
Liquid-nitrogen-jet laser-plasma sources; Slit-grating spectroscopy; Soft x-ray microscopy; Zone-plate imaging; Imaging techniques; Laser beams; Laser produced plasmas; Neodymium lasers; Photons; Plasma stability; Synchrotron radiation; X ray microscopes; Plasma sources
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7015DOI: 10.1063/1.1884186ISI: 000228362200016Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-17644395629OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-7015DiVA: diva2:11890
Note
QC 20100820Available from: 2007-04-20 Created: 2007-04-20 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Compact Soft X-Ray Microscopy: Sources, Optics and Instrumentation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Compact Soft X-Ray Microscopy: Sources, Optics and Instrumentation
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

This thesis describes the development of a sub-60-nm full-period resolution compact soft x-ray microscope operating in the water-window region (2.3-4.4 nm). Soft x-ray water-window microscopy is a powerful technique for high-resolution imaging of organic materials exploiting the natural contrast mechanism between carbon and oxygen, cf. Sect. 4.1. The thesis discusses the components of, as well as the integration of the microscope, including liquid-jet laser-plasma x-ray sources, optics, simulations, and image-processing tools.

Liquid-jet-target laser-plasma sources for generation of soft x-rays and extreme-ultraviolet radiation are compact sources with high brightness. The work focused on improved target stability, decreased debris, and accurate source characterization. For x ray microscopy applications a liquid-jet target delivery system allowing cryogenic liquids was developed. Source characterization was performed for two different liquid-jet targets: Methanol and liquid nitrogen. For extreme-ultraviolet lithography applications, the potential use of a liquid-tin-jet laser-plasma source was explored including conversion efficiency and debris measurements.

High quality optics are essential in the development of compact x-ray microscopes. For soft x-ray wavelengths, zone plates and multilayer mirrors are used to focus or redirect radiation. This thesis describes the development and characterization of a condenser zone plate suitable for use in a compact soft x-ray microscope operating at λ = 2.478 nm. It also investigates the possibility to perform differential interference contrast microscopy in the water window using a single diffractive optical element. An arrangement for rapid and accurate determination of absolute and local diffraction efficiency of soft x-ray zone plates using a compact laser-plasma source has been developed. The instrument is used to characterize the zone plates fabricated at the Biomedical & X-Ray Physics division at KTH. Through a collaboration with the Fraunhofer-Institut in Jena, Germany, a large diameter spherical Cr/Sc multilayer mirror, suitable as condenser in the compact x-ray microscope, was developed and characterized. The mirror is designed for λ = 3.374 nm and shows a high, and uniform reflectivity of 3%. This increases the photon flux by an order of magnitude compared to the W/B4C mirrors previously used.

The thesis describes the development of a compact soft x-ray microscope with sub-60-nm full-period resolution. It can operate at two different wavelengths in the water window using the soft x-ray laser-plasma sources combined with the condenser optics described above. Imaging is performed by zone plate objectives. The microscope is capable of imaging hydrated biological samples with thicknesses up to ~10 μm. Improvements made to the mechanical design has turned it into a user friendly instrument allowing daily operation. A numerical method was developed to study the effects of partially coherent illumination on 2D imaging. To stimulate experiments on functional imaging in x-ray microscopy an image-analysis algorithm for identifying colloidal-gold particles was developed. Size selective identification and localization of single gold particles down to a diameter of 50 nm was demonstrated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2007. x, 59 p.
Series
Trita-FYS, ISSN 0280-316X ; 2007:25
Keyword
soft x-ray microscopy, water window, compact, laser plasma, liquid jet, zone plate optics
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4342 (URN)978-91-7178-613-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2007-05-04, FD 5, Albanova, Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm, 13:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100819Available from: 2007-04-20 Created: 2007-04-20 Last updated: 2010-08-20Bibliographically approved

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Vogt, UltichHertz, Hans

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