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Linking sanitation and hygiene policy to service delivery in Rwanda and Uganda
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies. KTH, Stockholm. (URS)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9340-4391
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Stockholm, Sweden .
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
University of Rwanda .
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Sanitation lags development achievements in other sectors, and is one of the unmet targets of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). This article explores the gap between sanitation policy intentions and outcomes in a comparative study of sanitation sector performance in Rwanda and Uganda with ‘good’ and ‘limited or no’ reported MDG progress respectively. The gap between strong political will, as asserted in policy commitments, statements, reforms and coordination efforts on one hand, and insufficient resources and actual implementation on the other, is examined by drawing on policy and implementation theories in a multi-level governance framework. Progress in Rwanda is explained by stronger political leadership and support for sanitation, stringent performance monitoring, an institutionalised and inclusive community-based approach, and investment in rural sanitation. We further argue that with households having much discretion over private actions for sanitation and hygiene, ‘backward mapping’ can contribute to improve understanding on how to close the implementation gap.

Keywords [en]
Sanitation, hygiene, Policy, Implementation, Outcome
National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Research subject
Planning and Decision Analysis
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-224437OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-224437DiVA, id: diva2:1191279
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2013-6364
Note

QC 20180317

Available from: 2018-03-16 Created: 2018-03-16 Last updated: 2018-03-17Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. ‘Making Sanitation Happen’: An Enquiry into Multi-Level Sanitation Governance
Open this publication in new window or tab >>‘Making Sanitation Happen’: An Enquiry into Multi-Level Sanitation Governance
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The importance of sanitation for human health and development is undisputed. Sanitation is now high on the international development agenda and has become a salient issue in most developing countries, Rwanda and Uganda being no exception. However, there are still shortcomings as regards ‘making sanitation happen’ on the ground. The basic institutional environment and the right governance structures are yet to be fully put in place. This is even more important in the new modes of governance wherein increasing numbers of public, private, and philanthropic actors at different levels of society are involved in sanitation provision and hygiene promotion driven largely by global goals and international development agendas. This has engendered top-down pressure to meet prescribed targets which in most cases miss the complexity of context, distort service priorities, and in some cases compromise sustainability.

This thesis disentangles how sanitation policies are articulated at multiple levels of governance and among various actors in the sector, and eventually translate into investment and behaviour change at the community and household levels. This is done by examining sanitation governance structures in Rwanda and Uganda. Specific emphasis is placed on the actors and actions at national, sub-national, community and household levels.

Drawing on multi-level governance as a conceptual framework, qualitative analysis of policy objectives and choices, and quantitative investigations of what motivates hygiene behaviour change at the community and individual levels, this cross-national comparative study is a novel attempt to decipher the complexity surrounding sanitation and to show ‘what makes sanitation happen’.

The insights of this research build on different strands of the literature but most importantly they contribute to the debate in the sanitation sector on what works on the ground, why and where.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2018. p. 95
Series
TRITA-SOM, ISSN 1653-6126 ; 2018-3
Keywords
Sanitation, hygiene, behaviour, multi-level governance, institutions, policy, implementation
National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Research subject
Planning and Decision Analysis
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-224439 (URN)978-91-7729-686-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-03-28, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, stockholm, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2013-6364
Note

QC 20180316

Available from: 2018-03-16 Created: 2018-03-16 Last updated: 2018-03-19Bibliographically approved

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