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Pharmaceutical compounds; a new challenge for wastewater treatment plants
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
2007 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Analytical analyses conducted at the Himmerfjärden WWTP (285.000 PE connected) identified 70 pharmaceutical compounds belonging to different therapeutic classes. Such organic micropollutants at low detected concentration range of µg - ng l-1 did not affect the treatment processes at WWTP. Results from analytical studies indicated continuous discharge of organic micropollutants to the surface water with a calculated load amounting to 1.51 kg day-1. Metoprolol, carbamazepine and naproxen were chosen for testing different removal methods. Oxygen Uptake Rate (OUR) tests were conducted to assess the bacterial activity of an activated sludge taken from a full scale aeration plant with the presence of selected target compounds.

A semi-technical scale membrane bioreactor ZeeWeed10™, treating final effluent from the Himmerfjärden WWTP (Sweden) was seeded with activated sludge from full scale biological stage. The membrane bioreactor (MBR) system placed after the final treatment appeared to be an insufficient technology for removal of residual amounts of organic micropollutants from WWTP effluents. Batch test studies with activated sludge taken from the membrane bioreactor and with application of granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration resulted in giving an overall assessment of removal efficiency. Metoprolol and carbamazepine tend to be resistant to the biodegradation process and in the dosed high concentration lead to bacterial cell decomposition in the activated sludge. Apparently, removal efficiency for naproxen exceeded the value of 46% with the spiked initial amount of 3.3 mg NAP g-1 MLSS. Application of the GAC filtration proved to be an efficient technique for removal of pharmaceutical compounds from treated wastewater.

Application of the statistical programme Modde7 was a time saving tool in studies of fouling occurrence. The effect of fouling phenomenon, which is a highly limiting factor for MBR performance, was minimised by adjusting the operational parameters as predicted by the Modde7 programme.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2007. , xiv, 28 p.
Series
Trita-LWR. LIC, ISSN 1650-8629 ; 2037
Keyword [en]
activated sludge, biodegradation, granular activated carbon (GAC), membrane bioreactor (MBR), pharmaceutical compounds, wastewater
National Category
Water Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4347ISBN: 978-91-7178-565-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-4347DiVA: diva2:11919
Presentation
2007-05-08, Sal V1, KTH, Teknikringen 72, Stockholm, 13:30
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101104Available from: 2007-05-04 Created: 2007-05-04 Last updated: 2010-11-04Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Low concentrations of high prority: pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs); occurrence and high removal at wastewater treatment plant
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low concentrations of high prority: pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs); occurrence and high removal at wastewater treatment plant
2006 (English)In: Vatten, ISSN 0042-2886, Vol. 62, no 2, 139-148 p.Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

Development of advanced analytical tools and analysis of wastewater samples confirmed the presence of residualamount of pharmaceuticals in environment and WWTP effluent in many European countries. Significantamount of compounds (30–90 % of administrated dose of antibiotics) is transported as active substance viaurine. Only some part of taken drug dose is metabolized by organisms and the rest is excreted in changed orunchanged form. Many non-target organisms, that could share some receptors with humans, could be exposedon pharmaceutical activity. Another important issue discussed is the combination of additive, synergistic andantagonistic effect that might reveal in the mixture of pharmaceutically active compounds introduced to theenvironment. The objective of this paper is to give the overview of recent published data concerning PPCPs. Inorder to find the efficient technology for removal of residual amount of pharmaceuticals the studied methodsand solutions are presented. The most interesting removal system is based on membrane technology. Separationof micropollutants onto membrane surface gives satisfactory results in experiments. A polishing step seems tobe also a very attractive technology for treatment of biologically active substances that pass all the precedingsteps in conventional WWTP s.

Keyword
ecotoxicology, membrane technology, pharmaceutical residues, wastewater
National Category
Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7035 (URN)
Note
QC 20101104Available from: 2007-05-04 Created: 2007-05-04 Last updated: 2010-11-04Bibliographically approved
2. Application Oxygen Uptake Rate (OUR) tests for study of Metoprolo inhibitory effects on activated sludge.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Application Oxygen Uptake Rate (OUR) tests for study of Metoprolo inhibitory effects on activated sludge.
Show others...
2006 (English)In: IWA World Water Congress & Exhibition, Beijing, 2006Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7036 (URN)
Conference
IWA World Water Congress & Exhibition, Beijing, September 10-14, China
Note
QC 20101104Available from: 2007-05-04 Created: 2007-05-04 Last updated: 2010-11-04Bibliographically approved
3. Two years of experience with semitechnical scale membrane bioreactor (MBR)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Two years of experience with semitechnical scale membrane bioreactor (MBR)
2007 (English)In: Vatten, ISSN 0042-2886, Vol. 63, no 1, 69-78 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In wastewater treatment applications the MBR technology combines biological treatment and a membrane systemto provide organic and suspended solids removal. Installation of low-pressure membranes within a biological reactor system replaces sedimentation, screening and media filtration as means of separating mixed liquorsuspended solids (MLSS) from treated wastewater. This study is focused on experiments with ZeeWeed10™MBR (Zenon GmbH) installed at the outlet of the main process line at Himmerfjärden WWTP, situated inGrödinge (south of Stockholm, Sweden). Results obtained for the MBR tests showed effluent water qualityimprovement in comparison with the full-scale plant performance with efficiency from 12 % removal efficiencyfor total nitrogen to 100 % for MLSS. Additionally, Design of Experiments methodology (Modde 7), wasappliedfor evaluation of fouling phenomenon in order to optimize the ZeeWeed10™ operation. 35 l m–2 h–1of flux and 7 minutes filtration with 40s of backwash were found as the optimal effective permeation conditionsfor the MBR process. The permeation fouling rate (PFR) was chosen as the major criterion that illustrates themembrane fouling occurrence and shows the necessity for membrane cleaning procedure. Furthermore, thecomparative studies of two membrane units (ZW500 and ZWNEW) were completed with an emphasis on fouling occurrence and indicated the ZWNEW as more fouling-resistant.

Keyword
designing of experiments (DOE), fouling phenomenon, membrane bioreactor (MBR), wastewater
National Category
Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7037 (URN)
Note
QC 20101104Available from: 2007-05-04 Created: 2007-05-04 Last updated: 2010-11-04Bibliographically approved
4. Behaviour of carbamazepine, metoprolol and naproxen in membrane bioreactor (MBR) activated sludge culture and after granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Behaviour of carbamazepine, metoprolol and naproxen in membrane bioreactor (MBR) activated sludge culture and after granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration
2007 (English)In: Enviromental Science and TechnologyArticle in journal (Other academic) Submitted
National Category
Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7038 (URN)
Note
QS 20120316Available from: 2007-05-04 Created: 2007-05-04 Last updated: 2012-03-16Bibliographically approved

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