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Environmental systems analysis of the use of bottom ash from incineration of municipal waste for road construction
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8771-7941
2006 (English)In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, Vol. 48, no 1, 26-40 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Bottom ash, originating from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI), is a potential road construction material. The aim of this study was to describe what differences in resource use and emissions that can be expected if crushed rock in the sub-base of a road in the Stockholm region in Sweden were to be substituted by MSWI bottom ash, taking into account the whole life cycle of the road and including alternative disposal of the bottom ash. An environmental systems analysis approach based on a life cycle perspective was outlined and used in a case study. It was found that the studied alternatives would cause different types of potential environmental impact; whereas, crushed rock in the road's sub-base would lead to larger use of resources, the alternative with MSWI bottom ash in the sub-base leads to a larger contaminant leaching. The results are sensitive to the transport distance for the road material and to conditions affecting the leaching from the road. The differences between energy uses in the two alternatives derive mainly from production of crushed rock and from landfilling of MSWI bottom ash, whereas, the metal emissions occur in the use stage of the road's life cycle.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2006. Vol. 48, no 1, 26-40 p.
Keyword [en]
Disposal, Environmental impact, LCA, MSWI bottom ash, Waste management
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7039DOI: 10.1016/j.resconrec.2005.11.004ISI: 000238811000003Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-33744937319OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-7039DiVA: diva2:11922
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2004-1779
Note

QC 20100914. Uppdaterad från Manuskript till Artikel (20100914)

Available from: 2005-09-28 Created: 2005-09-28 Last updated: 2015-07-21Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Environmental assessment of municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash in road constructions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental assessment of municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash in road constructions
2005 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

There are several incentives for using bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI bottom ash) as a construction material, such as for road construction. These incentives include decreased disposal of material on landfills and a reduced amount of raw material extracted for road building purposes. However, one of the main obstacles to utilising the material is uncertainties regarding its environmental properties. The overall objective of this thesis is to describe the potential environmental impacts of utilising MSWI bottom ash in constructions and to improve the tools for environmental assessments.

An environmental systems analysis (ESA) approach based on a life cycle perspective was outlined and used in a case study, with the aim of describing the differences in resource use and emissions that can be expected if crushed rock in the sub-base of a road in the Stockholm region in Sweden were to be substituted by MSWI bottom ash. The whole life cycle of the road was taken into account and the alternative disposal of the bottom ash was included. It was found that the studied alternatives would cause different types of potential environmental impact; whereas the conventional alternative with only crushed rock in the road’s sub-base would lead to larger use of energy and natural resources, the alternative with MSWI bottom ash in the sub-base would lead to larger contaminant leaching. It was concluded that a life cycle approach is needed in order to include both resource use and emissions in the comparison between the two alternative scenarios. The leaching of metals turned out to be the most important environmental aspect for the comparison and in particular the difference in copper (Cu) leaching was shown to be large.

However, a large amount of Cu may not pose an environmental threat if the Cu is strongly bound to dissolved organic carbon (DOC). In order to improve the basis for toxicity estimates and environmental risk assessments, and thereby provide better input values for ESAs, the speciation of Cu to DOC in MSWI bottom ash leachate was studied. It was found that Cu to a large extent was bound to DOC, which is consistent with previous research. The results also suggest that the hydrophilic fraction of the MSWI bottom ash DOC is important for Cu complexation and that the pH-dependence for Cu complexation to MSWI bottom ash DOC is smaller than for natural DOC. This implies that models calibrated for natural DOC may give inconsistent simulations of Cu-DOC complexation in MSWI bottom ash leachate.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2005. viii, 26 p.
Series
Trita-LWR. LIC, ISSN 1650-8629 ; 2030
Keyword
bottom ash, environmental impact, LCA, waste management, leaching, copper, dissolved organic carbon
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-435 (URN)91-7178-151-X (ISBN)
Presentation
2005-09-28, V32, Teknikringen 76, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101217Available from: 2005-09-28 Created: 2005-09-28 Last updated: 2010-12-17Bibliographically approved
2. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

 In Sweden, utilisation of incinerator residues outside disposal areas is restricted by environmental concerns, as such residues commonly contain greater amounts of potentially toxic trace elements than the natural materials they replace. On the other hand, utilisation can also provide environmental benefits by decreasing the need for landfill and reducing raw material extraction. This thesis provides increased knowledge and proposes better approaches for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, particularly bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI).A life cycle assessment (LCA) based approach was outlined for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, in which leaching of trace elements as well as other emissions to air and water and the use of resources were regarded as constituting the potential environmental impact from the system studied. Case studies were performed for i) road construction with or without MSWI bottom ash, ii) three management scenarios for MSWI bottom ash and iii) three management scenarios for wood ash. Different types of potential environmental impact predominated in the activities of the system and the scenarios differed in use of resources and energy. Utilising MSWI bottom ash in road construction and recycling of wood ash on forest land saved more natural resources and energy than when these materials were managed according to the other scenarios investigated, including dumping in landfill. There is a potential for trace element leaching regardless of how the ash is managed.Trace element leaching, particularly of copper (Cu), was identified as being relatively important for environmental assessment of MSWI bottom ash utilisation. CuO is suggested as the most important type of Cu-containing mineral in weathered MSWI bottom ash, whereas in the leachate Cu is mainly present in complexes with dissolved organic matter (DOM). The hydrophilic components of the DOM were more important for Cu binding than previously understood. Differences were also observed between MSWI bottom ash DOM and the natural DOM for which the geochemical speciation models SHM and NICA-Donnan are calibrated. Revised parameter values for speciation modelling are therefore suggested. Additions of salt or natural DOM in the influent did not change the leachate concentration of Cu. Thus, although Cl and natural DOM might be present in the influent in the field due to road salting or infiltration of soil water, this is of minor importance for the potential environmental impact from MSWI bottom ash.This thesis allows estimates of long-term leaching and toxicity to be improved and demonstrates the need for broadening the system boundaries in order to highlight the trade-offs between different types of impact. For decisions on whether incinerator residues should be utilised or landfilled, the use of a life cycle perspective in combination with more detailed assessments is recommended.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2008. x, 54 p.
Series
Trita-LWR. PHD, ISSN 1650-8602 ; 1046
Keyword
MSWI bottom ash, wood ash, recycling, LCA, environmental assessment, geochemical speciation modelling, dissolved organic matter, copper (Cu)
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-9155 (URN)978-91-7415-121-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-10-17, Lecture hall F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100914Available from: 2008-10-08 Created: 2008-09-25 Last updated: 2010-09-14Bibliographically approved

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