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Hydroxycinnamic Acids: Natural Sources, Biosynthesis, Possible Biological Activities, and Roles in Islamic Medicine
KTH.
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2017 (English)Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Hydroxycinnamic acids are the most widely distributed phenolic acids in plants. Broadly speaking, they can be defined as compounds derived from cinnamic acid. They are present at high concentrations in many food products, including fruits, vegetables, tea, cocoa, and wine. Cinnamic acid has received great attention in oriental research where it has been used as an antioxidant in food additives in Asia and especially in medical studies in China after being proven to be an effective component of medicinal herbs used by traditional medicine. Cinnamic acid is a phenolic acid widely distributed in the plant kingdom. It presents a wide range of potential therapeutic effects useful in the treatments of cancer, diabetes, lung, and cardiovascular diseases, as well as hepatic, neuro-, and photoprotective effects and antimicrobial and antiinflammatory activities. Overall, the pharmaceutical potential of cinnamic acid can be attributed to its ability to scavenge free radicals. However, recent studies have revealed that cinnamic acid presents pharmacological properties beyond those related to its antioxidant activity, such as the ability to competitively inhibit HMG-CoA reductase and activate glucokinase, contributing to reduce hypercholesterolemia and hyperglycemia, respectively. A diet rich in hydroxycinnamic acids is thought to be associated with beneficial health effects such as a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. The impact of hydroxycinnamic acids on health depends on their intake and pharmacokinetic properties. It can be found free, dimerized or esterified with proteins and polysaccharides in the cell wall, such as arabinoxylans in grasses and xyloglucans in bamboo. Cinnamic acid is an important biological and structural component of the plant cell wall. Due to its ability to stop radical chain reactions by resonance followed by polymerization, cinnamic acid offers protection against UV radiation and is responsible for cross-linking polysaccharides and other cell wall polymers. Cinnamic acid can be absorbed by the small intestine and excreted in the urine, where therapeutic efficacy is dependent on its physiological concentrations and pharmacokinetic properties, which include absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of metabolites. Mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, especially 2D NMR (COSY, NOESY, HMQC, and HMBC), are the most useful analytical techniques for the structural elucidation of hydroxycinnamic acids besides UV, IR, CD, X-ray analysis, and chemical degradation. In this chapter, we update the reader about the therapeutic properties of cinnamic acid, reviewing its dietary sources, the pharmacokinetic profile, antioxidant action mechanisms, and therapeutic effects in the treatment and prevention of various diseases, in order to provide a basis for understanding its pharmaceutical potential.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V. , 2017. p. 1-29
Series
Studies in Natural products Chemistry, ISSN 15725995
Keywords [en]
Bioavailability, Biological activity, Biosynthesis, Functional foods, Hydroxycinnamic acids, Prophetic medicine, Synthesis
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-222942DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-444-64068-0.00008-5Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85040702812OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-222942DiVA, id: diva2:1193545
Note

QC 20180327

Available from: 2018-03-27 Created: 2018-03-27 Last updated: 2018-03-27Bibliographically approved

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