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On the estimation of the lightning incidence to offshore wind farms
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electromagnetic Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6375-6142
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electromagnetic Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9800-6894
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electromagnetic Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1607-2493
2018 (English)In: Electric power systems research, ISSN 0378-7796, E-ISSN 1873-2046, Vol. 157, p. 211-226Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Field observations have shown that the frequency of dangerous lightning events to wind turbines, calculated according to the IEC standard 61400-24:2010, is grossly underestimated. This paper intends to critically revisit the evaluation of the incidence of downward lightning as well as self-initiated and other-triggered upward flashes to offshore wind power plants. Three different farms are used as case studies. The conditions for interception of stepped leaders in downward lightning and the initiation of upward lightning is evaluated with the Self-consistent Leader Inception and Propagation Model (SLIM). The analysis shows that only a small fraction of damages observed in the analysed farms can be attributed to downward lightning. It is also estimated that only a small fraction (less than 19%) of all active thunderstorms in the area of the analysed farms can generate sufficiently high thundercloud fields to self-initiate upward lightning. Furthermore, it is shown that upward flashes can be triggered even under low thundercloud fields once a sufficiently high electric field change is generated by a nearby lightning event. Despite of the uncertainties in the incidence evaluation, it is shown that upward flashes triggered by nearby positive cloud-to-ground flashes produce most of the dangerous lightning events to the case studies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd , 2018. Vol. 157, p. 211-226
Keywords [en]
Lightning, Lightning damage, Risk assessment, Upward lightning, Wind power farms, Clouds, Damage detection, Electric fields, Standards, Wind power, Wind turbines, Downward lightnings, Field observations, High electric fields, Offshore wind power plants, Positive cloud-to-ground flashes, Propagation modeling, Offshore wind farms
National Category
Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-223115DOI: 10.1016/j.epsr.2017.12.008ISI: 000425203500021Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85039859714OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-223115DiVA, id: diva2:1193653
Note

Export Date: 13 February 2018; Article; CODEN: EPSRD; Correspondence Address: Becerra, M.; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Electromagnetic EngineeringSweden; email: marley@kth.se. QC 20180327

Available from: 2018-03-27 Created: 2018-03-27 Last updated: 2018-03-27Bibliographically approved

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Becerra Garcia, MarleyLong, MengniThottappillil, Rajeev

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